Occupational Exposures of Hairdressers and Barbers and Personal Use of Hair Colourants: Some Hair Dyes, Cosmetic Colourants, Industrial Dyestuffs and Aromatic Amines
World Health Organization
IARC, 1993 - Medical - 427 pages
A detailed assessment of the carcinogenic risk to humans posed by the professional and personal use of hair colourants. An additional 17 monographs evaluate the carcinogenicity of eight hair dyes, one cosmetic colourant, four industrial dyestuffs, and four aromatic amines, three of which are used in dyestuff manufacture.
The first and most extensive monograph considers the carcinogenic risk posed by occupational exposures of hairdressers and barbers and personal exposure to hair colourants. Citing consistent evidence from five large European cohort studies of excess risk for cancer of the urinary bladder in male hairdressers and barbers, the monograph concludes that occupation as a hairdresser or barber entails exposures that are probably carcinogenic. The carcinogenic risk linked to the personal use of hair colourants could not be determined.
Of the eight hair dyes considered, only one, HC Blue No. 1, could be classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans. The cosmetic colourant, D&C Red No. 9 (CI Pigment Red 53:1), could not be classified. Of the four industrial dyestuffs, CI Direct Blue 15, CI Acid Red 114, and magenta containing CI Basic Red 9 were classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans. The manufacture of magenta was classified as entailing exposures that are carcinogenic.
Of the four aromatic amines, 4 4'-methylene bis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA) was classified as probably carcinogenic to humans. para-Chloroaniline and 2 6-dimethylaniline were classified as possibly carcinogenic; N N-dimethyl-aniline could not be classified.
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SUMMARY OF FINAL EVALUATIONS
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1,4-diamino-2-nitrobenzene 2-Amino-4-nitrophenol Abstr adenomas agents aniline aromatic amines assay B6C3F1 mice Basic Red 9 benzidine bladder cancer body weight Carcinogenesis Carcinogenic Risk carcinogenicity carcinomas case—control study Chem Chinese hamster ovary chromosomal aberrations compounds controls D&C Red data were available diet dose Edited Environ Evaluation of Carcinogenic experimental animals Experimental systems gavage gene mutation Genetic and related Group noted hair dyes hairdressers hamster ovary cells HC Blue HC Yellow hepatocellular hepatocellular carcinomas hepatocytes Humans No data IARC IARC Monographs incidence induced liver low-dose Lyon magenta male rats metabolites mg/kg bw micronuclei MOCA Mortelmans Mutag mutagenicity N,N-dimethylaniline National Toxicology Program Occupational exposure Overall Evaluations oxidative pages Sw para-chloroaniline related effects reported reverse mutation Risk of Chemicals Salmonella typhimurium Salmonella typhimurium TA100 Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 Salmonella typhimurium TA98 semi-permanent hair shampoos sister chromatid exchange skin Suppl Toluidine toxicity Toxicol tumours Unscheduled DNA synthesis urinary urine vitro vivo Volume Zeiger