Omega-6/omega-3 Essential Fatty Acid Ratio: The Scientific Evidence
Artemis P. Simopoulos, Leslie G. Cleland
Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers, Jan 1, 2003 - Health & Fitness - 174 pages
Studies on the evolutionary aspects of diet and molecular studies included in this volume indicate that human beings evolved on a diet that was balanced in the essential fatty acids (EFA). In fact, the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 EFA was 1/1 whereas present day diets in both developed and developing countries have a much higher ratio, between 5/1 and 50/1. Additional studies show that a high ratio of omega-6/omega-3 EFA is detrimental to health and may lead to the development of chronic diseases. Improving the dietary ratio by decreasing the omega-6 fatty acids and increasing the omega-3 fatty acids is essential for brain function and for the management of cardiovascular disease, arthritis and cancer. A ratio of 4/1 or less leads to lower dosage and to the reduction of adverse effects of drugs. This volume should be of interest to a large and varied audience of researchers in academia, industry, and government; cardiologists, geneticists, immunologists, neuroscientists, and cancer specialists; as well as nutritionists, dietitians, food scientists, agriculturists, economists and regulators.
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Ad.GFP adipose tissue ALA intake alpha-linolenic acid Alzheimer’s arachidonic acid atherosclerosis Basel blood brain breast cancer breast cancer risk cardiovascular disease case-control study cells cholesterol cholesterol levels Cleland LG Clin Nutr clinical consumption coronary artery disease coronary heart disease cytokine decrease desaturase docosahexaenoic acid effects of omega–3 eicosanoids eicosapentaenoic acid EPA and DHA epidemiological essential fatty acids experimental fat-1 gene fatty acid composition fatty acid ratio fish oil function genetic HUFA human increased inflammation inflammatory Karger linoleic acid linolenic lipids long-chain omega–3 metabolism myocardial infarction n-3 fatty acids neuronal membrane Nutrition omega–3 fatty acids omega–3 PUFA omega–6 and omega–3 omega–6 to omega–3 omega–6/omega–3 fatty acid omega–6/omega–3 ratio patients phospholipids plasma platelet polyunsaturated fatty acids prevention production prostaglandin prostate cancer PUFA ratio ratio of omega–6 rats reduced Rev Nutr Diet risk factors serum Simopoulos AP supplementation trial tumor World Rev Nutr