Omnidirectional Inductive Powering for Biomedical Implants

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Springer Science & Business Media, Oct 14, 2008 - Technology & Engineering - 222 pages
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Omnidirectional Inductive Powering for Biomedical Implants investigates the feasibility of inductive powering for capsule endoscopy and freely moving systems in general. The main challenge is the random position and orientation of the power receiving system with respect to the emitting magnetic field. Where classic inductive powering assumes a predictable or fixed alignment of the respective coils, the remote system is now free to adopt just any orientation while still maintaining full power capabilities. Before elaborating on different approaches towards omnidirectional powering, the design and optimisation of a general inductive power link is discussed in all its aspects. Special attention is paid to the interaction of the inductive power link with the patient’s body. Putting theory into practice, the implementation of an inductive power link for a capsule endoscope is included in a separate chapter.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
12 Types of Wireless Power Transmission
2
122 Conductive
3
123 Capacitive
4
124 Inductive
5
13 A Biomedical Perspective
6
132 Transcutaneous Powering
7
14 Inductive Links
9
424 Class E Inverters
97
425 Alternative Load Networks
102
426 Design of an Inductive Link Driver
104
43 Voltage Regulators
112
431 Linear Regulators
113
432 Switching Regulators
115
44 Conclusions
116
Omnidirectional Coupling
119

142 Data Communication
10
15 Conclusions
11
16 What to Expect
12
Magnetic Induction
13
212 TimeHarmonic Differential Form
14
214 Magnetic and Electric Potential
15
215 Current and Flux
16
22 Conductive Wire
17
23 Inductance
18
24 Inductor Models
21
25 Finite Element Modelling
24
251 Axisymmetric Geometries
25
252 2D Wire Models
32
253 3D Models
33
254 Mutual Inductance
36
Inductive Link Design
39
312 Equivalent TwoPort Representations
42
313 Secondary Resonance
43
314 Transmitted Power
45
315 Link Efficiency
46
316 Link Gain and Critical Coupling
48
317 Parallel vs Series Resonance
50
318 Summary
53
33 Tertiary Circuits
55
331 Conductive Objects
56
332 Coupled Resonators
61
34 Link Optimisation
65
M0
66
R10 and R20
68
N2
71
345 Secondary Coil and Capacitance Tapping
75
346 Advanced Gain Stabilisation
77
35 Misconceptions About k and Q
78
36 Conclusions
80
Power Converters and Voltage Regulators
83
411 Diodes
84
412 Peak Rectifiers
85
413 Class D Rectifiers
88
414 Class E Rectifiers
91
42 Inverters
92
421 Semiconductor Switches
93
422 Saturating Class C Inverter
94
423 Class D Inverters
96
52 Multiple Primary Coils
120
522 WorstCoupling Map
121
523 Capsule Endoscope with One Secondary Coil
123
53 Multiple Secondary Coils
127
532 WorstCase Conditions
129
533 Capsule Endoscope with Three Secondary Coils
134
54 Conclusions
137
Biological Tissue Interaction
139
612 Far Field
142
62 Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields
143
622 Other Biological Effects
145
64 Examples from Biomedical Engineering Practice
148
65 Conclusions
150
An Inductive Power Link for a Capsule Endoscope
151
Choices and Motivation
152
723 Coil Configuration
153
725 Power Optimisation
154
726 Verification
155
73 Fabrication
156
74 Measurement
160
75 Biological Tissue Interaction
163
751 ICNIRP Compliance
165
752 Link Efficiency
169
753 Class E Tuning
170
754 Secondary Resonance Tuning
172
A Class E Driver for Deformable Coils
175
82 Control Loop
179
83 Measurement Results
183
831 Deforming the Primary Coil
184
832 Varying the Frequency
186
84 Conclusions
187
Conclusions
191
92 Main Contributions and Achievements
193
93 Further Research
194
Coil Measurements
197
A12 OnePort S11 Measurement
199
A13 TwoPort Q Measurement
200
A14 Impedance Analysers and LCR Meters
203
A2 Coupling Characterisation
204
References
211
Index
219
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