On the Classification and Geographical Distribution of the M̲a̲m̲m̲a̲l̲i̲a̲: Being a Lecture on Sir Robert Reade's Foundation, Delivered Before the University of Cambridge ... May 10, 1859. To which is Added an Appendix "On the Gorilla," and "On the Extinction and Transmutation of Species."
J. W. Parker and son, 1859 - 103페이지
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according affinity Africa America animal anthropoid apes appears applied approach associated base bones brain called canines cause changes characteristics characters chimpanzee compared complete cranium Cuvier digits distinct divided division Edition elephant equal evidence existence extent extinct foot fossil genera genus gibbons give gorilla greater hair hand head History hoofed human important incisors indicate kind known larger length less limbs lower male Mammalia Mammals modifications molars muscles natural nearer negro never observation orang organs period placenta position premolars present primary processes prominent proportion Quadrumana quadrupeds races reference regard relation relative remarkable represented respect ridge Sciences shape short siamang single skull smaller sole species structure subclass teeth third thumb tion toes tooth tree Troglodytes true trunk upper usually varieties vertebræ World young
56 페이지 - ... species has to maintain against the surrounding agencies that are ever tending to dissolve the vital bond and subjugate the living matter to the ordinary chemical and physical forces.
56 페이지 - ... of any gradual diminution of the size — of such species, but is the result of circumstances which may be illustrated by the fable of the " Oak and the Reed; " the smaller and feebler animals have bent and accommodated themselves to changes to which the larger species have succumbed.
49 페이지 - I have already argued, his psychological powers, in association with his extraordinarily developed brain, entitle the group which he represents to equivalent rank with the other primary divisions of the class Mammalia founded on cerebral characters. In this primary group Man forms but one genus, Homo, and that genus but one order, called BIMANA, on account of the opposable thumb being restricted to the upper pair of limbs. The...
56 페이지 - ... a geometrical ratio, to the bulk of the species. If a dry season be gradually prolonged, the large mammal will suffer from the drought sooner than the small one ; if such alteration of climate affect the quantity of vegetable food, the bulky Herbivore will first feel the effects of stinted nourishment ; if new enemies are introduced, the large and conspicuous quadruped or bird will fall a prey, whilst the smaller species conceal themselves and escape. Smaller animals are usually, also, more prolific...
26 페이지 - The superficial grey matter of the cerebrum, through the number and depth of the convolutions, attains its maximum of extent in Man. Peculiar mental powers are associated with this highest form of brain, and their consequences wonderfully illustrate the value of the cerebral character...
60 페이지 - Vertebrata, but the sum of the animal species at each successive geological period has been distinct and peculiar to such period. Not that the extinction of such forms or species was sudden or simultaneous: the evidences so interpreted have been but local Over the wider field of life at any given epoch, the change has been gradual ; and, as it would seem, obedient to some general, continuously operative, but as yet, ill-comprehended, law.
60 페이지 - Organic remains, traced from their earliest known graves, are succeeded, one series by another, to the present period, and never re-appear when once lost sight of in the ascending search. As well might we expect a living Ichthyosaur in the Pacific, as a fossil whale in the Lias : the rule governs as strongly in the retrospect as the prospect. A nd not only as respects the Vertebrata, but the sum of the animal species at each successive geological period has been distinct and peculiar to such period.
63 페이지 - ... exactly those best suited to the functions of the being. Hence we not only show intelligence evoking means adapted to the end; but, at successive times and periods, producing a change of mechanism adapted to a change in external conditions. Thus the highest generalizations in the science of organic bodies, like the Newtonian laws of universal matter, lead to the unequivocal conviction of a great First Cause, which is certainly not mechanical.
17 페이지 - Mammalia ; and the homologous teeth are determined, like other parts, by their relative position, by their connexions, and by their development. Those teeth which are implanted in the premaxillary bones, and in the corresponding part of the lower jaw, are called 'incisors,' whatever be their shape or size. The tooth in the maxillary bone, which is situated at or near to the suture with the premaxillary, is the