On the Self-Regulation of Behavior

Front Cover
Cambridge University Press, May 7, 2001 - Psychology - 460 pages
0 Reviews
This book presents a thorough overview of a model of human functioning based on the idea that behavior is goal-directed and regulated by feedback control processes. It describes feedback processes and their application to behavior, considers goals and the idea that goals are organized hierarchically, examines affect as deriving from a different kind of feedback process, and analyzes how success expectancies influence whether people keep trying to attain goals or disengage. Later sections consider a series of emerging themes, including dynamic systems as a model for shifting among goals, catastrophe theory as a model for persistence, and the question of whether behavior is controlled or instead 'emerges'. Three chapters consider the implications of these various ideas for understanding maladaptive behavior, and the closing chapter asks whether goals are a necessity of life. Throughout, theory is presented in the context of diverse issues that link the theory to other literatures.
 

What people are saying - Write a review

We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.

Contents

Introduction and Plan
1
Some Limitations and Some Grandiosity
2
Observations and Origins
3
The Books Plan
4
Emotion
5
Confidence and Doubt Persisting and Giving Up
6
Problems in Behavior
7
Control versus Emergence of Behavior
8
Responses to Fear
183
Persistence
184
Mental Disengagement Impaired Task Performance and Negative Rumination
185
SelfFocus Task Focus and Rumination
186
The Great Divide
188
Is Disengagement Good or Bad?
189
Disengagement Issues and Comparisons
190
Problems with Limited Disengagement
191

Goal Engagement and Life
9
Principles of Feedback Control
10
The Ubiquitous Thermostat
13
Sloppy versus Tight Control
15
Intermittent Feedback
17
Positive Feedback Loops
18
Open Loop Systems
19
Feedforward
20
Interrelations among Feedback Processes
22
Interdependency
23
How Do They Differ?
24
Hierarchies
26
Concluding Comment
28
DiscrepancyReducing Feedback Processes in Behavior
29
Early Applications of Feedback Principles
30
SelfDirected Attention and Comparison with Standards
31
SelfDirected Attention and Conformity to Standards
34
Brain Functioning SelfAwareness and SelfRegulation
37
How Does Attention Shift to the Self in Ordinary Life?
38
Broadening the Application of Feedback Principles
40
Use of Feedback for SelfVerification
42
Social Comparison and Feedback Control
44
Summary
47
DiscrepancyEnlarging Loops and Three Further Issues
48
Downward Social Comparison
49
Feared Self and Unwanted Self
50
Positive Feedback Process Constrained by Negative Feedback Process
51
The Ought Self
54
Reactance
55
Feedback Loops in Mutual Interdependence
57
The Search for Discrepancies
59
The Issue of Will
60
Goals and Behavior
63
TaskSpecific Goals
65
Hierarchical Conceptions of Goals
67
A Control Hierarchy
68
Hierarchical Functioning Is Simultaneous
73
Action Identification
74
Comparisons Outside PersonalitySocial Psychology
76
Hierarchical Models of Motor Control
77
Comparisons From PersonalitySocial Psychology
78
Hierarchicality behind Task Efforts
79
Hierarchicality in Other Models
81
Summary
82
Goals Hierarchicality and Behavior Further Issues
83
Are the Qualities of the Proposed Hierarchy the Wrong Sorts?
85
Responsibility for Details
86
Further Issues Regarding Hierarchical Functioning
87
Multiple Paths to HighLevel Goals Multiple Meanings in Concrete Action
89
Goal Importance
90
Approach Goals and Avoidance Goals within a Hierarchy
91
Approach and Avoidance Goals and WellBeing
92
Multiple Simultaneous Goals
93
Multiple Goals Satisfied in One Activity
94
Programs Seem Different from Other Goals
95
Opportunistic Planning and Stages in Decision Making
96
Goal Hierarchies and Traits
97
Viewing Others in Terms of Traits versus Actions
98
Traits and Behaviors in Memory
99
Goals and the Self
100
SelfDetermination Theory and the Self
101
Public and Private Aspects of the Self
103
Further Distinctions
105
Recent Statements
107
Aspects of Self and Classes of Goal
108
Behavioral SelfRegulation and Private versus Social Goals
110
Differential Valuation of Personal and Social Goals
112
SelfConsciousness and SelfAwareness in SelfRegulation
113
Conformity
115
Attitudes Subjective Norms and Behavior
116
Private Preferences and Subjective Norms Vary in Their Content
118
Control Processes and Affect
120
Goals Rate of Progress and Affect
121
Progress Toward a Goal versus Completion of Subgoals
124
Evidence on the Affective Consequences of Progress
125
Lawrence Carver and Scheier
126
Brunstein
128
Affleck and Colleagues
129
Questions
130
Does Positive Affect Lead to Coasting?
131
A CruiseControl Model of Affect
133
Subjective Experience of Acceleration and Deceleration
134
Surprise
135
Research
136
Affect from DiscrepancyEnlarging Loops
137
Doing Well Doing Poorly
138
Activation Asymmetry between Dimensions
139
Affect and Behavior
140
Affect from Recollection or Imagination
141
Merging Affect and Action
142
Other Applications
144
Breadth of Application
146
Affect Issues and Comparisons
148
Influences on Stringency
149
Changing MetaLevel Standards
150
Further Issues
153
Goal Attainment and Negative Affect
154
Conflict and Mixed Feelings
155
Time Windows for Input to MetaMonitoring Can Vary
156
Are There Other Mechanisms that Produce Affect?
158
Relationships to Other Theories
159
SelfDiscrepancy Theory
161
Positive and Negative Affect
164
Biological Models of Bases of Affect
166
Expectancies and Disengagement
171
Feelings and Confidence
172
Mood and Decision Making
173
Confidence and Brain Function
174
Interruption and Further Assessment
175
Assessment of Expectancies
176
Generality and Specificity of Expectancies
178
Effort versus Disengagement
180
Comparisons with Standards
182
Scaling Back Goals as Changing Velocity Reference Value
192
When Giving Up Is Not a Tenable Option
193
Inability to Disengage and Responses to Health Threats
195
Helplessness
196
Watersheds Disjunctions and Bifurcations among Responses
197
Other Disjunctive Motivational Models
198
Does Disengagement Imply an Override Mechanism?
200
Disengagement or Competing Motives?
201
Loss of Commitment
203
Further Theoretical Comparisons
204
The Sense of Personal Control
205
Engagement and Disengagement in Other Literatures
208
Goal Setting
209
Upward and Downward Social Comparison
210
SelfVerification
211
Performance Goals and Learning Goals
212
Curiosity
213
Stress and Coping
214
Summary
215
Applications to Problems in Living
217
Automatic Distortion of Feedback
218
Goals Operating out of Awareness
219
Doubt as a Root of Problems
220
Automatic Use of Previously Encoded Success Expectancies
221
Premature Disengagement of Effort
222
Social Anxiety
224
Failure to Disengage Completely When Doing So Is the Right Response
226
Hanging On Is Related to Distress
227
When Is Disengagement the Right Response?
228
Complexity of the Self
230
Rumination as Problem Solving and Attempted Discrepancy Reduction
231
Rumination as Dysfunctional
232
Hierarchicality and Problems in Living
234
Problems as Conflicts among Goals
236
Problems as Absence of Links from High to Low Levels
237
Making Low Levels Functionally Superordinate
238
Relinquishing or Abandoning HighLevel Control as Escape from the Self
241
Relinquishing or Abandoning HighLevel Control as Problem Solving
242
Further Comparisons
243
Symmetry in Application
246
Residing Too Much at High Levels
247
Chaos and Dynamic Systems
250
Nonlinearity
251
Sensitive Dependence on Initial Conditions
254
Phase Space Attractors and Repellers
256
Another Way of Picturing Attractors
258
Variability and Phase Changes
260
Simple Applications of Dynamic Systems Thinking
262
Goals as Attractors
263
Shifts among Attractors and Motivational Dynamics
265
Variability in the Construing of Social Behavior
266
Variability and Consciousness
268
Chaotic Variation as Frequency Distributions
271
Variability of Behavior in Iterative Systems
273
Catastrophe Theory
275
Sensitive Dependence on Initial Conditions
276
Hysteresis
278
Catastrophes in Physical Reality
279
Variability
281
Applications of Catastrophe Theory
282
Dating and Mating
284
Relationship Formation and Dissolution
285
Groups
286
Persuasion and Belief Perseverance
287
Rumination versus Action
288
Expectancies
289
Effort versus Disengagement
290
Importance or Investment as a Critical Control Parameter
294
Further Applications to Problems in Living
296
Care Less
299
Chaotically Caring
301
Further Possible Manifestations of the Cusp Catastrophe
302
Dynamic Systems and the Change Process
303
Stability Adaptation and Optimality
305
Minima in Specific Problems
306
Therapy
307
Destabilization and the Metaphors of Dynamic Systems
309
Extensions
311
Psychological Growth
312
Is Behavior Controlled or Does It Emerge?
317
Some Apparent Complexity Need Not Be Created
318
Properties Emergent from Social Interaction
320
Does Emergence of Some Imply Emergence of All?
321
Two Modes of Functioning?
322
Connectionism
323
Need Everything Be Distributed?
327
Planning and GoalRelevant Decisions
329
DualProcess Models
331
TwoMode Models in PersonalitySocial Psychology
332
CognitiveExperiential SelfTheory
333
Deliberative and Implemental Mindsets
334
Comparisons among Theories
335
Two Automaticities
336
Autonomous Artificial Agents
337
Complexity and Coordination
338
Another View of Goals in Autonomous Agents
339
Comparison with TwoMode Models of Thinking
343
Conclusions
344
Goal Engagement Life and Death
346
Conceptualization
347
Goal Engagement and WellBeing
350
Disengagement and Passive Death
352
Disengagement Disease and Death
353
Doubt Disengagement and Adverse Responses to Disease
354
Disengagement Recurrence Disease Progression and Death
356
Conclusions
357
Dynamics and Engagement
358
Aging and the Reduction of Importance
361
References
365
Name Index
423
Subject Index
435
Copyright

Other editions - View all

Common terms and phrases

References to this book

All Book Search results »

Bibliographic information