On Whirlwind Storms: With Replies to the Objections and Strictures of Dr. Hare

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J.S. Redfield, 1842 - Tornadoes - 70 pages
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Page 48 - ... to admit, that this transfer of heat might co-operate with other causes in the production of storms, but could not concur with Mr. Espy in considering it competent to give rise to thunder gusts, tornadoes, or hurricanes. These he had considered, and still considers, to be mainly owing to electrical discharges between the earth and the sky; or between one mass of clouds and another.
Page 52 - Near as I was to the exterior edge of the circle of the tornado, I felt no extraordinary gust of wind ; but noticed that the breeze continued to blow uninterruptedly from the same quarter from which it prevailed before the tornado occurred. "I also particularly observed that there was no perceptible increase of temperature of the air adjacent to the edge of the whirlwind, which might have caused an ascending current by a rarefaction of a portion of the atmosphere.
Page 3 - Bache that my observations should be brought forward, a task which has been too long delayed, partly from a desire that he would revise his former conclusions. The facts now presented form part of the evidence to which I then alluded. If the effects which I present for consideration be due to " a moving column of rarefied air without any whirling motion at or near the surface of the ground,
Page 3 - In a paper printed in the American Journal of Science, in which I referred to the support given by Prof. Bache to Mr. Espy's theory of storms, at the meeting of the British Association in 1838, founded upon observations made on the New Brunswick tornado, I have stated, that in my own examinations I had observed numerous facts which appear to demonstrate the whirling character of this tornado, as well as the inward tendency of the whirling vortex at the surface of the ground...
Page 11 - The violent effects of this central and closing action are more clearly seen as we advance from the left-hand margin towards the centre or apparent axis of the path. From the causes to which I have just alluded, the effects are usually more violent on and near the line passed over by the axis, than in other portions of the track. This line of greatest violence is found to coincide nearly with the line which separates the inwardly inclined prostrations of the two opposite sides of the track.* The...
Page 45 - ... to the storms and hurricanes which occur in the West Indies and south of the parallel of 30. As the marked occurrence of tempestuous weather is here less frequent, it may be sufficient to notice that the point of direction in...
Page 31 - The facts" demanded, I had supposed, were furnished on that occasion in sufficient numbers. Dr. Hare next adduces " the statement of a most respectable witness, that while the tornado at Providence was crossing the river, the water which had risen up...
Page 51 - ... amid all the agitation of the water and the air about it, this cone continued unbroken," &c. This "cone" of the tornado of which he so often speaks, it should be noted was an inverted one, the smaller end of which was sweeping on the earth's surface.* Thus he gives the instance, "when the point of the dark cone of cloud passed over the prostrate wreck of the building, the fragments seemed to be upheaved," &c. It will be seen here that the prostration of the building had preceded the arrival of...
Page 41 - ... MODIFICATIONS which are EXHIBITED by regular and GENERAL WINDS. But, so far from being the great prime mover of the atmospheric currents, either in producing a supposed primary north and south current, or in any other manner, I entertain no doubt, that if it were 'possible to preserve [this is the part Dr.
Page 3 - I have observed 011 each occasion, numerous facts which appear to demonstrate the whirling character of this tornado, as well as the inward tendency of the vortex at the surface of the ground ; and further, that the direction of this rotation was towards the left, as in the North Atlantic hurricanes ; — a result which I had not previously expected, as it appeared probable that the direction of rotation, in these small whirlwinds, must be entirely accidental.

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