One Hundred Unorthodox Strategies: Battle And Tactics Of Chinese Warfare

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Westview Press, May 15, 1998 - History - 320 pages
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One Hundred Unorthodox Strategies was compiled in the fifteenth century, during the Ming Dynasty, as a handbook of tactics based on Chinese military classics. Translated into English for the first time, this unique work draws on over two thousand years of experience in warfare to present a distillation of one hundred key strategic principles. Originally prepared as a text for students aspiring to high political positions in Confucian China, One Hundred Unorthodox Strategies is a compendium of Oriental strategies concisely stated and each individually illustrated with a description of battle from Chinese history. These historical examples shed new light on the often enigmatic formulations of the ancient strategists on subjects such as Strategic Power, Defense, Vacuity, Spirit, and Victory. Acclaimed translator and Chinese military specialist Ralph Sawyer adds his own thoughtful commentary, deepening the reader’s understanding of the intricacies of Chinese strategic thought.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
Estimates
19
Plans
22
Spies
24
Elite Forces
26
The Infantry
28
The Cavalry
31
Amphibious Strategies
35
The Hungry
147
The Sated
150
Fatigue
152
Ease
154
Victory
155
Defeat
157
Advancing
159
Retreating 16 1
160

Chariots
37
Trust
40
Instructions
42
Large Numbers
44
Small Numbers
47
Love
49
Awesomeness
52
Rewards
56
Punishment
58
The Host
60
The Guest
63
The Strong
66
The Weak
69
Arrogance
71
Alliances
75
Disposition
77
Strategic Power
79
Daylight
82
Night
85
Preparation
86
Provisions
88
Local Guides
90
Knowledge
92
Observers
95
Marshes
97
Contentious Terrain
100
Advantageous Terrain
102
Mountains
105
Valleys
108
Offense 1 10
111
Defense
113
Initiative
115
Response
116
The Unorthodox
118
The Orthodox
122
The Vacuous
124
The Substantial
126
Recklessness
127
Weightiness
130
Profit
132
Harm
134
Security
136
Danger
140
Fighting to the Death
143
Seeking Life
146
Provocation
163
Compulsion
166
The Distant
168
The Nearby
170
Rivers
171
Incendiary Strategies
175
Slowness
177
Quickness
181
Order
185
Disorder
186
Segmenting
190
Uniting
193
Anger
196
Spirit
199
Retreats
202
Pursuits
204
Refusing Battle
207
Inevitable Combat
208
Avoidance
211
Sieges
213
Utterances
215
Peace Negotiations
218
Enduring Attacks
220
Surrenders
222
The Heavens
224
The Human
227
The Difficult
233
The Easy
235
Bait
237
Estrangement
239
Doubt
243
The Impoverished
245
Wind
246
Snow
248
Nurturing Spirit
251
Fear
254
Letters
257
Change
260
Enthralled with Warfare
264
Forgetting Warfare
268
Historical Characteristics of Chinese Warfare
275
Strategic and Tactical Principles
283
Names Places Books and Special Terms
287
Quotations from the Military Classics
297
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Page 25 - The means by which enlightened rulers and sagacious generals moved and conquered others, that their achievements surpassed the masses, was advance knowledge. "Advance knowledge cannot be gained from ghosts and spirits, inferred from phenomena, or projected from the measures of Heaven, but must be gained from men for it is the knowledge of the enemy's true situation.
Page 153 - In order to cause the enemy to come of their own volition, extend some [apparent] profit. In order to prevent the enemy from coming forth, show them the [potential] harm.
Page 265 - Warfare is the greatest affair of state, the basis of life and death, the Way to survival or extinction. It must be thoroughly pondered and analyzed.
Page 78 - If I determine the enemy's disposition of forces, while I have no perceptible form, I can concentrate my forces, while the enemy is fragmented. The pinnacle of military deployment approaches the formless; if it is formless, then, even the deepest spy, can not discern it, nor the wise make plans against it.

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About the author (1998)

Ralph D. Sawyer, one of America’s leading scholars in Chinese warfare, has worked extensively with major intelligence and defense agencies. After studying at MIT and Harvard and a brief stint of university teaching, Sawyer has spent the past thirty years lecturing and doing international consulting work focused on China.

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