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Patterns of Social Mobility
g Political Institutions
Literacy and Learning
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agricultural Alcuin areas aristocracy artisans Augustine became bishops Black Death Boniface bureaucracy Carolingian Carolingian Empire Carolingian Renaissance Cassiodorus cathedral central Charlemagne Christian church cities classical clergy countryside court culture demesne early Middle Ages ecclesiastical economic eleventh century empire England English estates European feudal feudal monarchy fiefs fifteenth centuries fourteenth century France Frankish French German Gregory growth guilds Henry historians important institutions intellectual Italy king Kingdom knights labor land late Middle Ages later Latin learning less liberal arts lord Louis manor manorial medieval merchants Merovingian ministeriales mobility monasteries monastic monks mystical nobility nobles papacy papal Paris peasants period persons Philip plague political Pope Pope Gregory VII population Roman Rome royal rulers rural Saint scholars schools secular serfdom serfs social society status tenth century thirteenth century tion towns townsmen twelfth century universities urban vassals wealth western Europe