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acid melting alloy analysis annealing basic furnace basic melting basic pig basic slag blow holes bottom brick burning carried cast steel cause cent Iron cent Silica chambers charge checkers chemical coal composition cooling cracks cubic centimeters degrees Cent degrees Fahr deoxidizers ductility elements FeMn ferro-manganese ferro-silicon FeSi finished product flame action flask fluidity follows foundry fracture furnace body gases grade grain grams gray iron heat treatment hydrochloric acid Iron Oxide ladle lime liquation liquid fuel liquid steel magnesite manganese material melter melting stock mold molding sand nace necessary nitric acid normal open-hearth furnace open-hearth steel operation pearlite phorus phos phosphorus physical properties pig iron possible pounds per square proper ranges red-shortness refractory regard repairs scorification silica sand silicon slag line solution square inch steel heated steel scrap structure temperature tensile strength thermit tion wrought iron
Page 18 - ... that they are unable to use fluorspar that runs as high as 15 per cent., and prefer it to run not higher than 12 per cent. silica. About one-half of the fluorspar purchased by this company does not contain over 5 per cent. silica. In the making of open hearth steel castings the function of fluorspar is to thin a limey slag when in the judgment of the melter it seems thick or sluggish. A moderate addition of fluorspar will liven it and its action may be likened to certain fluxes used in brazing...
Page 109 - W* all previous crystallization, however coarse or however distorted by cold work, is obliterated and replaced by the finest structure which the metal is capable of assuming,t the structure of burnt steel, which cannot be effaced by such treatment, being the only exception.
Page 96 - Tensile strength, pounds per square inch 85,000 70,000 60,000 Yield point, pounds per square inch .... 38,250 31,500 27,000 Elongation, per cent, in two inches. ... 15 18 22 Contraction of area, per cent 20 25 30 5. A test to destruction may be substituted for the tensile Drop Test, test, in the case of small or unimportant castings, by selecting three castings from a lot.
Page 109 - ... quenched, it will be fully hardened, but its structure will be coarser than if it had been quenched from W without having been previously heated above that temperature. (See Appendix I.) V. The higher the temperature above W from which the steel is allowed to cool undisturbedly, the larger the grains.
Page 109 - When a piece of steel, hardened or unhardened, is heated to the temperature \V, all previous crystallisation, however coarse or however distorted by cold work, is obliterated and replaced by the finest structure which the metal is capable of assuming,!
Page 20 - ... addition to 300 pounds of limestone for flux, to 1,227 pounds each of pig iron and steel scrap. In American practice he says 5 pounds of chrome ore are used per ton for patching parts of the hearth where cutting above the slag line is severe upon the brick work, usually in gas ports and door jambs. Aside from patching, it is used as a neutral lining between magnesite and silica bricks. In European practice it is stated that entire hearths are lined with lump chrome ore. A basic lining, the patent...
Page vi - O. 6-367p. 11. front. t$l.EO. (Mr. 23) '07. McClurg. 7-12974. Carr. WM Open hearth steel castings: a complete exposition of the methods Involved In the manufacture of open-hearth steel castings by the basic and acid processes; comp. from a series of articles by the author, written for and pub. by the Iron trade review and the Foundry. D. 2p., 7-118p.
Page vi - This work is compiled from a series of articles by the author, written for and published by The Iron Trade Review and The Foundry.
Page 16 - Oxide of iron has a strong fluxing effect, but its presence below 3 percent is harmless. Core Compounds. — Any reliable proprietary article will answer and the list will include molasses water, rosin, flour, linseed oil, etc., all of which are too well known to need any description. Materials for Basic Practice. Melting. Stock.