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anterior and posterior approaches
Lateral approach to the upper cervical spine
Posterior approaches to the cervical spine
16 other sections not shown
allow annulus approach arachnoid artery articular bleeding Bone and Joint bone graft bony caudal cervical spine clinical column cord compression cordotomy curette decompression deformity disc herniation disc protrusion disc space discectomy disease dissection drill dura dural electrode ELLDH epidural exposure facet joint fascia fibula fixation foramen fracture fusion halo hook identified iliac crest incision injury inserted instability instrumentation intervertebral disc intervertebral foramen Joint Surgery Journal of Bone kyphosis lamina laminectomy lateral lateral recess lesions ligamentum flavum longitudinal ligament lumbar spine medial metastatic midline muscle myelography necessary neoplasm nerve root neural neurological deficit operation Orthopaedics osteophyte osteotomy pain paraplegia patients pedicle position posterior postoperative preoperative procedure prolapse removed retracted retractor rongeurs scan scoliosis screw segmental side spinal canal spinal cord spinous process stability sublaminar wires surgeon surgical sutures syringomyelia technique thoracic disc tissue transverse processes treatment tumour usually vertebral body