Optical Methods of Engineering Analysis

Front Cover
Cambridge University Press, May 28, 1998 - Science - 503 pages
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Increasingly, the techniques of optical measurement are being used to solve problems in experimental mechanics. This book meets the need for an up-to-date exposition of optical methods in experimental mechanics. Professor Cloud efficiently integrates optics theory with the development of optical methods. Techniques discussed include classical interferometry, photoelasticity, geometric moire, optical spatial filtering, intermediate sensitivity moire, holographic interferometry and phase measurement techniques. Cloud provides a firm base in the physical principles and at the same time allows the reader to perform meaningful experiments related to the topic being studied. Such a user-oriented approach will appeal to both students and practicing engineers.
 

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Contents

Introduction and orientation
1
12 Approach and scope
2
13 Motivations
5
15 Closure
8
Optics and interferometry
11
Light and interference
13
22 Maxwells equations
14
23 Wave equation and simple harmonic wave
18
126 Formation of moire fringe patterns
251
127 Reduction of fringe data
253
128 Threedimensional application
263
Moire interferometry
267
Principles of moire interferometry
269
132 Geometrical treatment of diffraction by a grating
271
133 General grating equation in oblique incidence
273
134 Review of twobeam interference in oblique incidence
278

24 Electromagnetic spectrum
19
25 Polarization
20
26 Mathematical approaches
21
plane spherical and warped
29
28 Interference of collinear waves
31
29 Interference of two plane waves
32
210 Concept of diffraction at an aperture
37
211 The generic interferometer
38
Classical interferometry
40
32 Youngs fringes
43
33 Michelson interferometry
46
34 Laser Doppler interferometry
47
Photoelasticity
55
Photoelasticity theory
57
42 Refraction
58
43 Absolute retardation
59
45 Relative retardation
64
47 Interferometric measurement of birefringence
66
48 Interpretation of equations
69
49 Wholefield analysis
72
410 Circular polarization
74
411 Circular polariscope
75
Basic applied photoelasticity
77
52 Calibration of polariscope
83
53 Model materials and fabrication
85
54 Calibration of model material some basics
87
55 Recording and interpreting isoclinic fringes
88
56 Recording and interpreting isochromatics
92
57 Use of nonmonochromatic light
95
58 Separating isoclinics and isochromatics
97
59 Transfer from model to prototype
99
Photoelasticity methods and applications
101
61 Birefringence in materials
102
62 Similarity and scaling in model analysis
119
63 Obtaining separate principal stresses
124
64 Determining exact fringe order
135
65 Reflection photoelasticity
141
66 Threedimensional photoelasticity
143
Geometrical moire
145
Geometrical moire theory
147
parametric description
148
73 Moire fringe displacement strain relations
151
74 Wholefield analysis
152
75 Using moire to obtain fullfield derivatives
153
Inplane motion and strain measurement
155
82 Strain analysis
156
83 Observing techniques for geometric moire
159
84 Creating gratings grills and grids
163
85 Complete analysis of twodimensional strain field
166
86 Errors in moire strain measurement from rotation
169
87 Moire strain rosette
172
88 Sensitivity of geometrical moire
173
89 Effects of pitch mismatch
175
Moire mapping of slope contour and displacement
179
92 Reflection moire
182
93 Projection moire
184
94 Projection moire application in biomechanics
189
95 Moire in fluid mechanics
191
Diffraction theory optical processing and moire
193
Diffraction and Fourier optics
195
102 General diffraction theory
197
103 The Fresnel and Fraunhofer approximations
203
104 Diffraction by a clear aperture
207
105 Diffraction by a harmonic grating
212
106 The lens as Fourier analyzer
215
107 Optical spatial filtering
221
108 The pinhole spatial filter
223
Moire with diffraction and Fourier optical processing
226
112 Diffraction by superimposed gratings
227
113 Optical Fourier processing of superimposed moire gratings
233
114 Creation of moire fringe patterns
234
115 Grating photography with slotted apertures
235
Procedures of moire analysis with optical processing
241
122 Outline of the technique
242
123 Master and submaster gratings
243
124 Specimen gratings
246
125 Photography of specimen gratings
249
135 Geometry of moire interferometer
280
136 Deformation of the specimen grating
282
137 Moire fringes of xdisplacement
284
138 Moire fringes of ydisplacement
295
1310 Complete analysis of twodimensional strain field
301
1311 Use of pitch mismatch in moire interferometry
304
A moire interferometer
313
142 Construction of interferometer
314
143 Adjustment of moire interferometer
319
Experimental methods in moire interferometry
323
152 Replication of gratings onto the specimen
328
154 Data reduction
331
Holographic interferometry
341
Holographic interferometry theory
343
162 Fundamental basis of holography
344
163 Producing a transmission hologram
346
164 Reconstruction of the holographic image
349
165 Holographic interferometry
355
166 Qualitative interpretation
363
167 Measurement of outofplane motion
364
168 Sensitivity vector
365
169 Fringe localization
370
Holographic interferometry methods
374
172 Holographic platform
375
173 Optical setups for holography
376
174 Recording and viewing a hologram
379
175 Hologram recording media
381
176 Doubleexposure interferometry
384
177 Realtime interferometry
385
178 Timeaverage interferometry
386
179 Holographic nondestructive testing
387
1710 Holographic photoelasticity
388
1711 Contour mapping
389
1712 Image plane holographic interferometry
390
Speckle methods
393
Laser speckle and combinations of speckle fields
395
182 Types and sizes of speckle
397
183 Brightness distribution
399
184 Coherent combination of speckle and uniform fields
400
185 Coherent and incoherent mixing of speckle patterns
401
186 Polarization effects
402
187 Speckle pattern decorrelation
403
188 Sensitivity vector
408
Speckle photography
409
192 Singleaperture speckle recording
412
193 Pointbypoint determination of displacement
415
194 Spatial filtering for wholefield displacement fringes
419
195 Calibration of method
425
196 Limitations
426
197 Dualaperture speckle photography
429
198 White light speckle photography and example application
431
Speckle correlation interferometry
440
202 Basic concept
441
203 Arrangement to measure outofplane displacement
444
204 Arrangement to measure inplane displacement
446
205 Two special cases to aid in error analysis
449
206 Recording speckle for correlation fringes
450
207 Accessing speckle correlation fringes
451
Electronic speckle pattern interferometry
453
212 Optical setups for ESPI
455
213 Video system and other electronics in ESPI
456
214 Fringe formation by video signal subtraction
457
215 Fringe formation by video signal addition
459
216 Realtime vibration measurement
461
217 Dynamic displacement measurement
463
219 Spatial resolution of the video system and its effect on ESPI
464
2110 Advantages and limitations of electronic speckle
470
2111 Example of application in nondestructive inspection
473
Phase shifting to improve interferometry
477
222 The basic idea of phaseshifting interferometry
478
223 Methods of phase shifting
481
224 Phasemeasurement algorithms
483
225 Comparison of phasemeasurement techniques
489
227 Converting phase change to displacement
491
Author index
493
Subject index
496
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