Optical Microscanners and Microspectrometers using Thermal Bimorph Actuators

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Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 31, 2002 - Technology & Engineering - 268 pages
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Optical Microscanners and Microspectrometers using Thermal Bimorph Actuators shows how to design and fabricate optical microsystems using innovative technologies and and original architectures. A barcode scanner, laser projection mirror and a microspectrometer are explained in detail, starting from the system conception, discussing simulations, choice of cleanroom technologies, design, fabrication, device test, packaging all the way to the system assembly.

An advanced microscanning device capable of one- and two-dimensional scanning can be integrated in a compact barcode scanning system composed of a laser diode and adapted optics. The original design of the microscanner combines efficiently the miniaturized thermal mechanical actuator and the reflecting mirror, providing a one-dimensional scanning or an unique combination of two movements, depending on the geometry. The simplicity of the device makes it a competitive component.

The authors rethink the design of a miniaturized optical device and find a compact solution for a microspectrometer, based on a tunable filter and a single pixel detector. A porous silicon technology combines efficiently the optical filter function with a thermal mechanical actuator on chip. The methodology for design and process calibration are discussed in detail. The device is the core component of an infrared gas spectrometer.

 

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Wrked on my lg optimus s good 4 a while then after wouldn't give me a direct scan for the item NOW that I have my samsung replenish wnt scan sh*t at all?

Contents

INTRODUCTION
1
12 MEMS
2
13 MOEMS
3
132 Printers and industrial machining
9
134 Telecommunication
10
135 Adaptive or corrective optics
12
136 Spectroscopy applications
13
137 Medical applications
15
55 CONCLUSIONS
133
ADVANCED OPTICAL FILTERS OF POROUS SILICON
135
62 HISTORY OF POROUS SILICON
136
631 Single etch cell
137
632 Double etch cell
138
64 PARAMETERS DETERMINING THE STRUCTURE OF POROUS SILICON
139
642 Substrate doping
140
643 Illumination
141

14 MOEMS ACTUATION PRINCIPLES
16
141 Electrostatic actuation
17
142 Piezoelectric actuation
22
143 Magnetic actuation
23
144 Thermal actuation
24
BASICS FOR A THERMALLY ACTUATED MICROMIRROR
27
22 PRINCIPLE OF THE PRESENTED MICROSCANNER
28
231 Thermal expansion
29
233 Thermal bimorph actuator design
41
MICROSCANNER
46
242 Determination of constants
51
243 Influence of the different constants on the temperature distribution
55
244 Summary
58
25 RESPONSE TIME OF THE BIMORPH BEAM
59
252 Measurements of the cutoff frequency of the bimorph actuator
60
253 Conclusion
61
254 Dynamic temperature distribution in the bimorph beam
62
26 GENERAL CONCLUSIONS
64
MICROSCANNER TECHNOLOGY
67
32 PROCESS IMPROVEMENTS
70
323 Mirror reflectivity
76
ONEDIMENSIONAL MICROSCANNER
77
42 STATIC CHARACTERIZATION OF CHROMIUM BASED ACTUATORS
78
422 Comparing angular deflection among various devices
80
423 Resistance variation of Cr layer with temperature
84
43 STATIC CHARACTERIZATION OF NICKEL BASED ACTUATORS
86
433 Angle vs power
87
434 Summary
88
441 Fundamental resonance frequency calculation
89
442 Experimental comparison of the resonance frequency
94
443 Influence of damping
97
444 Thermal cutoff
98
446 Lateral suspension mirror
100
447 Dynamics of the tunable optical filter with Ni based actuator
102
448 Summary
104
45 ID SCANNER APPLICATIONS
105
452 Micromechanical detector for molecular beams
109
46 CONCLUSIONS
111
TWODIMENSIONAL MICROSCANNER
113
522 Simulations
119
53 DYNAMIC MEASUREMENTS
120
532 2Dmicroscanner type 2
122
533 Summary
123
542 Pixel resolution
124
543 Static and dynamic mirror deformations
126
544 Experimental results
127
645 Current densities
142
65 ELECTROPOLISHING
144
66 POROUS SILICON AS SACRIFICIAL LAYER
145
672 General theory for simulation of optical multilayer filters
146
673 Bragg band reflectors
148
674 FabryPerot bandpass filters
150
675 Multi band reflectors
151
676 Edge filters
152
677 Angular dependence
153
682 Lateral homogeneity
156
684 Oxidation and aging
161
69 SUMMARY
163
MICROMACHINING USING POROUS SILICON
165
72 METAL MASKS
166
73 NITRIDE MASKS
167
75 MASK REMOVAL
169
761 Calculation of optimum layer thicknesses
173
762 Calculation of beam length
180
77 MECHANICAL FILTER PLATE SUSPENSION
181
78 HOMOGENEITY OF THE OPTICAL FILTER
184
781 Frontside mask only
185
782 Frontside and backside mask
186
783 Experimental comparison
187
784 Electropolished well
189
79 PROCESS FLOW
190
710 SUMMARY
193
TUNABLE OPTICAL FILTER AND IR GAS SPECTROSCOPY
195
82 OPTICAL CHARACTERIZATION
198
822 Infrared light
200
83 CHIP SEPARATION AND PACKAGING
202
832 Bonding on PCB
204
834 Protection by a fusible link
205
842 Setup
208
85 SUMMARY
210
CONCLUSIONS AND OUTLOOK
211
912 Tunable optical filter
213
92 OUTLOOK
215
APPENDICES
217
A2 COMPLEMENT TO THE STATIC TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION CALCULATION
221
A3 LARGE DEFLECTIONS
225
REFERENCES
229
SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS
255
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
263
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
267
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Page 248 - JJ Yon, K. Barla, R. Herino, G. Bomchil, "The kinetics and mechanism of oxide layer formation from porous silicon formed on p-Si substrates".

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