Optical Networking Standards: A Comprehensive Guide for Professionals

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Khurram Kazi
Springer Science & Business Media, Apr 13, 2007 - Technology & Engineering - 828 pages
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Optical Networking Standards: A Comprehensive Guide for Professionals provides a single source reference of over a hundred standards and industry technical specifications for optical networks at all levels: from components to networking systems through global networks, as well as coverage of networks management and services. This book focuses on the recently approved, adopted and implemented standards that have fueled the development of versatile switches, routers and multi-service provisioning platforms. These networking elements have enabled the service-providers world-wide to offer flexible yet customized bundled-services based on IP, MPLS and Carrier-Grade Ethernet.

Lead implementers, contributors and editors of the new standards have come together to produce this uniform and complete reference. The list includes independent consultants, professionals, and researchers from such companies as AMCC, Agere Systems, British Telecom, Ciena Corporation, Cisco Systems, Lucent Technologies, Marconi, Nortel, PMC-Sierra, Strix Systems and Tellabs.

Highlights include recent advancements involving:

- Critical technical standards and implementation from ITU-T, IETF, MEF, and OIF

- Optimization of SONET/SDH and OTN infrastructure for data delivery, GFP, VCAT and LCAS

- IP, MPLS, Ethernet and Fibre Channel services over public networks

- Optical control plane for dynamically switched optical networks, ASON

- Network survivability and recovery

- Timing in global optical networks

- Architecture of optical transport networks

- Network element design using standardized components and inter-components communication

- Numerous illustrative examples showing actual situations or cases implemented

The volume has been edited by Dr. Khurram Kazi, a networking veteran with over 19 years of real-world expertise in architecting and designing ASICs and systems for SONET, IP, ATM, PDH and Ethernet networks. Dr. Kazi has published refereed articles and conference tutorials on topics ranging from optical components to ASICs and Optical Networks.

 

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Contents

1112 Organization of the chapter
375
1113 Related standards activity
377
1114 Definition of some technical terms in this chapter
378
112 SERVICE TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS
379
1121 Ethernet connection EC attributes
381
1122 Ethernet Private Line EPL service
387
1123 Ethernet virtual private line service EVPL
388
1124 Ethernet private LAN EPLAN service
389

15 STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
13
Optical Transport Network Infrastructure
14
ARCHITECTURE OF TRANSPORT NETWORKS
17
22 TRANSPORT FUNCTIONAL MODELING
18
221 Basic Concepts
20
222 Functionality
29
223 Connections and Points
31
224 Connection Dimension Model
32
225 Sublayers and Function Decomposition
35
226 Examples
36
227 Equipment Packaging
39
228 Application Examples
40
229 Equipment Control
50
2210 Equipment Supervisory Process
53
2211 Modeling Connectionless Layer Networks
60
2212 Summary
61
24 REFERENCES
62
INTERFACES FOR OPTICAL TRANSPORT NETWORKS
63
32 OTN STANDARDS
64
33 STANDARDIZED INTERFACES
66
34 FORWARD ERROR CORRECTION
67
341 Theoretical Description
68
342 Coding Gain
70
35 TANDEM CONNECTION MONITORING
73
36 OTN HIERARCHY OVERVIEW
76
37 OTN G709 FRAME STRUCTURE
79
INDEPTH ANALYSIS AND PROCESSING
81
381 OPUk Overhead Bytes and Client Mapping Structure
82
382 Similarly ValuedFormatted Fields within G709 Frame
88
383 ODUk Overhead and Processing
90
384 Tandem Connection Monitoring TCM
95
39 OTUK OVERHEAD AND PROCESSING
98
391 Scrambling
99
392 Frame Alignment Overhead
100
393 Section Monitoring Byte Descriptions
101
394 General Communication Channel 0 GCCO
104
3101 Multiplexing Data Rates
105
3102 4 x ODU1 to ODU2 Multiplexing
107
3103 ODU1ODU2 to ODU3 Multiplexing
112
3104 Summary
117
MULTIPLEX STRUCTURES OF THE OPTICAL TRANSPORT NETWORK
118
42 THE SITUATION IN THE PREVIOUS CENTURY
120
43 THE EVOLUTION OF THE BANDWIDTH
127
44 NEW CLIENTS
130
45 VIRTUAL CONCATENATION
131
452 Payload Distribution and Reconstruction
133
453 Additional Benefits
136
455 VCAT Details
137
46 LINK CAPACITY ADJUSTMENT SCHEME LC AS
140
463 Temporary Link Capacity Decrease
141
47 ADVANTAGES OF USING VCAT LCAS AND GFP
144
482 Compensation of Differential Delay
145
483 Structure and Management of Differential Delay Buffers
146
484 Differential Delay Buffer Overview
147
485 Alignment within a VCG
148
486 Sizing the Delay Buffers
149
488 Controlling DistributionReconstruction Order
150
489 Member Status
151
49 REFERENCES
152
GENERIC FRAMING PROCEDURE GFP
153
52 BACKGROUND
155
522 Other Traffic Adaptation Approaches
156
523 Other Design Considerations
157
53 FORMATS AND PROCEDURES
158
531 GFP Frame Formats
159
532 GFP Control Frames
164
534 ClientDependent Procedures
166
54 IMPLEMENTATION CONSIDERATIONS
171
542 Scrambler Options
172
55 PERFORMANCE
174
552 Probability of False Frame Synchronization FFS
175
553 Probability of Frame Unavailability FUA
176
554 Frame Acquisition Delay
179
555 Scrambler Resynchronization Delay
182
56 APPLICATIONS
184
562 Virtual Leased Lines
185
563 Packet Rings
186
57 FUTURE DIRECTIONS
187
SYNCHRONIZATION OF OPTICAL NETWORKS
189
62 BACKGROUND ON TIMING SYNCHRONIZATION AND JITTER
191
622 Jitter Tolerance Transfer Generation and Network Limit
196
623 Mapping and Multiplexing
200
624 Pointer Adjustments
203
625 Timing Signal Imperfections
206
626 Characterization of Timing Performance
209
627 Wander Network Limits and Wander Performance
212
63 ROADMAP OF CURRENT ITUT RECOMMENDATIONS ON TIMING AND JITTER FOR OTN SDH AND PDH
214
64 TIMING AND JITTER REQUIREMENTS FOR SONETSDH AND OTN
216
641 SEC and ODC Frequency Accuracy Clock Modes Pullin and PulloutHoldin Ranges
218
642 STMN and OTUk Jitter Network Limit and Tolerance STMN Regenerator and ODCr Jitter Generation and Transfer and STMN and OTUk Jitter ...
219
643 Jitter and Wander Accumulation for PDH Clients of SDH Networks and SDH Clients of OTN
227
65 RELIABLE DISTRIBUTION OF SYNCHRONIZATION
233
651 The Need for Synchronization
234
652 Synchronization Areas
235
653 Reference Duplication and Reference Selection
241
654 Synchronization Status Messages
243
655 Satellite Timing
248
656 Synchronization Network Engineering
249
66 CONCLUSIONS AND CLOSING REMARKS
250
662 Closing Remarks
251
67 NOTES
252
68 REFERENCES
254
SYNCHRONIZATION ARCHITECTURES FOR SONETSDH SYSTEMS AND NETWORKS
257
72 TIMING TRACEABILITY
261
721 Source Traceability
262
73 SYNCHRONIZATION DISTRIBUTION
266
74 NETWORK ELEMENT NE ARCHITECTURE
268
741 Timing Engine TE Functions
269
742 Timing Distributor TD Functions
270
743 Network Element System Architecture
275
744 Small Network Element Architecture
276
745 Medium Network Element Architecture
277
746 Large Network Element Architecture
278
EXTERNAL TIMING CONFIGURATIONS
279
751 DirectSource Timing Method
280
752 BridgedSource Timing Method
281
753 LineExternal Timing Method
282
754 Mult Timing Method
285
76 CLOCK BACKUP MODES AND IMPLICATIONS
286
77 SYNCHRONIZATION GUIDELINES
292
78 NOTES
293
79 REFERENCES
294
NETWORK SURVIVABILITY
295
83 SURVIVABILITY OFFERED BY PROTECTION
296
831 Network Objectives
297
833 Protection Switching Parameters
303
834 Protection Switching Classes
306
835 Holdoff Timer
309
836 Protection Switching Trigger Criteria
310
839 Examples
312
8310 Optical Transport Networks OTN Survivability
313
84 SURVIVABILITY OFFERED BY RESTORATION
314
841 Network Restoration Techniques
315
843 Interoperability
316
LCAS
317
86 MULTILAYER SURVIVABILITY
318
87 REFERENCES
319
Services Offered Over Transport Networks
320
METRO ETHERNET OVERVIEW AND ARCHITECTURE
321
912 Traffic and Performance Management
324
92 METRO ETHERNET FORUM CHARTER
325
93 METRO ETHERNET NETWORK MEN ARCHITECTURE
326
932 MEN Layer Network Model
327
933 MEN Reference Points
329
934 MEN Architectural Components
334
935 MEN Layer Relationship to the Architecture Model Components
337
REFERENCES
341
ETHERNET SERVICES OVER METRO ETHERNET NETWORKS
343
1021 Customer Edge View
344
1023 Service Frame
345
1024 Ethernet Virtual Connection
346
1025 Identifying an EVC at a UNI
348
103 SERVICE FEATURES
349
1031 CEVLAN ID Preservation
350
1033 Service Multiplexing
352
1034 Feature Constraints
355
1035 ELine and ELAN Service
356
1037 Bandwidth Profiles
359
1038 Layer 2 Control Protocols
365
104 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
367
1051 Ethernet Physical Layers
368
1053 Ethernet VLANs
370
106 NOTES
371
107 REFERENCES
372
ETHERNET SERVICES OVER PUBLIC WAN
373
1125 Ethernet virtual private LAN service
391
113 TRANSPORT NETWORK MODELS IN SUPPORT OF ETHERNET CONNECTIVITY SERVICES
392
114 ETHERNET CLIENT INTERFACES
401
1141 Multiplexed access
402
1142 VLAN mapping
404
1146 Summary of UNI Service Attributes for Different Services
405
116 OAM
411
117 PROTECTION AND RESTORATION
419
1171 Service Protection or Restoration Provided by the Transport Network
420
1172 Service Restoration at Layer 2
421
119 NOTES
422
1110 REFERENCES
423
ETHERNET SERVICES OVER MPLS NETWORKS
425
1212 Classification of VPNs
426
1213 Multiservice Converged Packet Switched Backbone
427
122 L2VPNs OVER MPLS BACKBONE
428
123 METRO ETHERNET SERVICES
436
124 METRO ETHERNET SERVICES OVER MPLS
437
1241 Emulation of ELine Services using VPWS
438
1242 ELine Service Emulation WalkThrough Example
441
1243 Emulation of ELAN Services using VPLS
443
1244 ELAN Service Emulation WalkThrough Example
448
125 IMPORTANCE OF VPLS FOR METRO ETHERNET SERVICES
449
126 SUMMARY
450
MPLS BASICS
451
1273 Label Encoding
452
1274 Label Switched Router LSR
453
1277 MPLS Forwarding Plane
454
1279 Benefits of MPLS Technology
455
METRO ETHERNET CIRCUIT EMULATION SERVICES
457
1312 Circuit Emulation Service Framework
466
132 REFERENCES
496
METRO ETHERNET NETWORK RESILIENCY AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
497
1412 Protection Terminology
499
1413 Discussion of Terminology
504
1414 Protection Reference Model
505
1415 Requirements for Ethernet Services protection mechanisms
516
1416 Framework for Protection in the Metro Ethernet
521
142 METRO ETHERNET TRAFFIC AND PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
524
143 REFERENCES
526
SONET SERVICES FOR STORAGE AREA NETWORKS
527
152 STORAGE NETWORKING
528
153 STORAGE AREA NETWORKS
531
1531 Factors Driving SAN Extension
532
The Storage Protocol of Choice
534
154 DISTANCE EXTENSION REQUIREMENTS
536
155 DISTANCE EXTENSION ALTERNATIVES
538
1551 Legacy Private Line
539
1553 Storage over IP
540
1554 SONETSDH
541
156 SONET AN IDEAL DISTANCE EXTENSION PROTOCOL
542
1561 Making SONET Fit The Role of Standards
544
157 SUMMARY
547
158 REFERENCES
548
Control and Management of Transport Networks
549
ARCHITECTING THE AUTOMATICALLY SWITCHED TRANSPORT NETWORK
550
162 NETWORK REQUIREMENTS G807
553
1621 Architectural Context
554
1622 Call and Connection Control
555
1623 Business and Operational Aspects
559
1624 Reference Points and Domains
562
1625 Architecture Principles
564
1626 Supporting Functions and Requirements
567
1627 Signaling Communications Network Requirements
570
1628 Support for Transport Network Survivability
571
1631 The Control Plane View of the Transport Network
576
1632 Identifying Components
578
1633 General Component Properties and Special Components
580
1635 Interlayer Modeling
583
1636 Distribution models
585
1637 An Example of Components in Action
586
1638 Identifier Spaces
588
1639 Restoration Architecture
593
164 SIGNALING COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK ARCHITECTURE G7712
595
1641 Signaling Methods
596
1642 Delivery of Control Plane Messages
597
1643 DCN Topologies
599
1644 DCN Reliability Considerations
602
1645 DCN Security Considerations
603
166 DISCOVERY G7714
604
1661 Discovery and Connectivity Verification
605
1662 Discovery Architecture
606
1663 Types of Discovery
607
1664 Discovery Considerations across Administrative Boundaries
611
1672 Architecture
615
1673 Hierarchy in Routing
619
1674 Routing Information Exchange
621
168 SIGNALING G7713
626
1681 Call and Connection Management Operations
627
1682 Basic Call and Connection Control Sequences
628
1683 Signaling Attributes
630
1684 Signaling Application Example
631
169 CONTROL PLANE MANAGEMENT
633
1610 PROTOCOL ANALYSIS
637
16102 Requirements Implications on Protocol Solutions
639
1611 METHODS AND PROTOCOLS DISCOVERY
640
1612 METHODS AND PROTOCOLS SIGNALING
643
16122 G77132 GMPLS RSVPTE Signaling
644
16123 G77133 GMPLS CRLDP
648
16124 Interoperability and Interworking
649
1613 METHODS AND PROTOCOLS ROUTING
651
1614 SIGNALING COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK MECHANISMS G7712
652
1615 FUTURES
653
1616 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
655
IntraNetwork Elements and ComponentCentric Standards
659
INTRANETWORK ELEMENTS COMMUNICATION
661
172 REQUIREMENT PLACED ON THE NETWORK ELEMENTS BY THE NETWORK
662
173 NETWORK ELEMENT DESIGN AND INTERFACE ARCHITECTURE
664
1731 Packet Based Network Elements
665
1732 TDM Based Network Elements
666
1733 Hybrid TDM + CellPacket based Network Element Architecture
667
174 25 GBITSS SYSTEMS
668
1741 SPI3 signal descriptions
669
175 10 GBITSS SYSTEMS
672
1752 SPI4 Phase 1 OC192 System Packet Interface
674
1753 System Framer Interface4 Phase 2 SFI4 Phase 2
677
176 SPI4 PHASE 2 OC192 SYSTEM PACKET INTERFACE
679
177 40 GBITSS SYSTEMS
681
1771 SERDES Framer Interface5 SFI5
682
1772 SPI5 OC768 System Packet Interface
685
1773 TFI5 TDM Fabric to Framer Interface
687
178 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
688
ITU OPTICAL INTERFACE STANDARDS
690
182 ITU OPTICAL INTERFACE STANDARDS
692
1822 Transverse versus longitudinal compatibility
700
1823 Overview of optical fiber types and associated recommendations
703
1824 Overview of optical interface recommendations
706
1825 Application code terminology related to distance
709
1826 Power budget design considerations and limitations
710
183 OPTICAL INTERFACE IMPLEMENTATIONS
712
1832 140 Mbits 25 Gbits technology
713
1833 10 Gbits technology
721
1834 40 Gbits technology
729
1843 Faults in optically amplified systems
731
185 NOTES
732
186 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
733
HIGHSPEED SERIAL INTERCONNECT
735
1911 ChipChip Interconnect
736
192 HIGHSPEED INTERCONNECT SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
737
1922 Printed Circuit Board PCB Interconnects
738
193 COMPLIANCE TEST METHODOLOGY
742
1932 Jitter modeling conventions for highspeed interfaces
744
1933 Bathtub curve analysis of jitter
746
194 INTERCONNECT EXTENSION USING DEEMPHASIS AND EQUALIZATION
748
1941 Deemphasis at the Transmitter
749
1942 Equalization at the Receiver
754
1943 Usage Models
756
195 STANDARDSBASED HIGHSPEED INTERCONNECT
758
1952 OIF TFI5
759
1954 Backplane Ethernet
760
196 HIGHER AND HIGHER SPEEDS
762
197 SUMMARY
764
Standards Development Process
765
STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
767
202 THE INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION ITU
768
2022 Membership
772
203 TECHNOLOGYSPECIFIC INDUSTRY FORUMS
776
2032 What is involved? Electionhierarchy
777
Why join?
779
2034 Membership
780
2035 Reality of human nature
781
2036 Teamwork
782
204 CONCLUSION
783
INDEX
784
Copyright

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About the author (2007)

Over 25 lead contributors and editors of the standards from networking power houses such as Lucent Technologies, Nortel, Marconi, Cisco, British Telecom, Agere Systems, AMCC, PMC-Sierra, Atrica and independent consultants, have come together to make this work a reality.

The volume has been edited by Khurram Kazi, a networking consultant who holds a PhD from University of Connecticut with over 17 years of real-world expertise in the designing ASICs and systems for SONET, IP, ATM, PDH and Ethernet networks. He has published papers and conference tutorials ranging from optical components, to ASICs, to Optical Networks.

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