Optimizing Adverb Positions
Adverb positions vary within a single language as well as across diverse languages. Based on the study of adverbs in English, French and German, this monograph shows that the distribution of adverbs is influenced by various factors at distinct levels of linguistic representation comprising semantics, syntax, phonology and information structure , which interact in determining adverb positions. The results of the investigation are formulated within the theoretical framework of Optimality Theory, which captures the complex interaction of these factors by hierarchically ranked constraints, deriving cross-linguistic variation of adverb positions by differences in the language-specific constraint hierarchies. The book is divided into two parts: While Part I examines adverb positions in general, Part II investigates under which circumstances an adverb may attach to a phonetically empty constituent in the languages under discussion. The book appeals to a linguistic audience interested in Germanic and Romance languages as well as in theoretical syntax in general.
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adjoined AdjPhon Adv<+Foc adverb adjunction adverb occurrence adverb placement adverb positions adverbs may occur AuxP ti VP c-command C’est candidates clause-final clause-initial position cleft clitic CLLD Co-I constraint contrast CP-Adj ellipsis English and French epistemic Ernst evidential adverbs example finite auxiliary finite main verb finite verb Foc<Adv focus-sensitive adverb focus-sensitive item focused constituent frequency adverb Frey gap constructions Gianni information-structural IP Johnj IP VP tj IP-adjunction Jean probably John lift 200 pounds main clauses manner adverb Maria Marie merged modal verb narrow scope reading non-finite verb ObHd Otto Peter phonetic material phonetically empty constituent Pittner post-auxiliary pre-auxiliary position pre-gap placement pre-gap position pre-subject position precede predicts ranking relative clause restrictions ScMa Section semantic semantic type sentence adverb SpecCP Stay-X0 structure subject-auxiliary inversion subject-oriented adverbs syntactic Tableau temporal adverbs tion types of adverbs undergo movement ungrammatical verb/auxiliary VP-ellipsis wahrscheinlich wh-movement wide scope adverb wide scope reading