Organizational Principles for Multi-Agent Architectures
1. 1 Background In this work, we develop a framework for the design of multi-agent systems inspired by (human) organizational principles. Organizations are complex entities formed to ov- come various limitations of individual agencies, such as cognitive, physical, temporal and institutional limitations. There is a parallel between the complexity of organizations and multi-agent systems. Therefore, we explore the use of concepts, methods and techniques from human organizational design as architectural principles for multi-agent systems. Three research lines are presented: organizational modeling and coordination, interop- ability and agent models. Organizational modeling and coordination are concerned with how resources (i. e. agents) can be identi?ed and related to each other. In order to have agents cooperate, several issues of interoperability have to be addressed. Agent models deal with the design of individual intelligent software agents, taking into account typical features of agent intelligence. Every (human) activity raises two challenges: division of labor and coordi- tion [Mintzberg, 1993]. Division of labor is the decomposition of work (or goals) into various distinct tasks. Coordination refers to managing relations between these tasks to carry out the work. The patterns of division of labor, responsibilities (people who do the work), clustering of responsibilities into units and coordination between units can be de?ned by organizational structures [Galbraith, 1973]. The design of an organization should cover how one or more actors are engaged in one or more tasks, where knowledge, capabilities and resources are distributed.
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5C model Adhocracy Agent Communication Meta agent engineers agent roles application configuration behavior capable Classifier collaboration Communication Meta Ontology communication model competence model conversation specific concepts coordination mechanisms coordination strategies couriers cycle database defined described Direct Supervision discuss environment model example execution space FIPA framework function Furthermore goal green card handling implemented input input-object instructions intelligent agent interoperability Java law expert agents law services broker Machine Bureaucracy Manager message content ontologies metaclass methods Minimal Ontology Mintzberg Multi-Agent Plan multi-agent system Musicshop Mutual Adjustment negotiation object diagram Operators organizational design organizational structures output perform personal law assistant planner model problem Professional Bureaucracy query Reconfigurator Reference Model represent request Section semantics separation of concerns sequence diagram slot software agents speech acts Standardization sub-task supply chain management task technical activities tion user agent web services
Page 191 - Bellifemine, F., Poggi, A., and Rimassa, G. (2001). Developing multi agent systems with a FIPA-compliant agent framework. Software - Practice And Experience, 31:103-128.