Organized Environmental Crime: An Analysis of Corporate Noncompliance with the Law
Crimes that harm the evironment are frequently presented as random accidents or disasters in the media and by some academics. This work argues that three divergent literatures can be integrated and tested in a unified conceptual schema; that enviornmental corporate crimes are a function of what previous researchers have termed "motive , opportunity, and choice."
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Enviromnental Crime and Organizational Behavior
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analysis beneﬁts break the law Business Roundtable Clinard and Yeager concemed conceptual Corp corporate crime corporate offending corporate organization corporation’s criminality criminogenic criminological dataset deﬁne deﬁnition dependent variable deviant differential association dollars economic enforcement environmental crime environmental justice researchers environmental laws environmental offending environmental violations EPA’s examining Exxon ExxonMobil facilities factors ﬁgure ﬁnancial performance ﬁnancial strain ﬁndings ﬁnes ﬁrm ﬁrm’s ﬁrst ﬁt frequency of violations global goal govemment hypothesis identiﬁed indicators inﬂuence interact Kimberly-Clark literature Marathon Marathon Oil McKendall and Wagner measures merged million motive noncompliance oil industry opportunity structure organizational characteristics ownership political economy pollution proﬁt rate proﬁtability rate of proﬁt rational choice rational choice theory recidivist reﬂect regulatory relationship sample serious violations signiﬁcant Simon social sociological Soft Money speciﬁc strain theory study period Sutherland theoretical theory time-series total assets toxic releases U.S. Steel violations of environmental voluntary compliance white-collar crime