Origin of Cancers: Clinical Perspectives and Implications of a Stem-Cell Theory of Cancer

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Springer Science & Business Media, Jul 20, 2010 - Medical - 237 pages
Précis This book is a treatise about the origin of cancers. I would like to convince readers that the basic tenets of the theory of a stem-cell origin of cancers also constitute a unified theory of cancer. Stem-cell origin of normal (and cancer) cells: Vitruvian version Every truth passes through three stages before it is recognized. In the first it is ridiculed, in the second, it is opposed, in the third, it is regarded as self-evident. – Arthur Schopenhauer v vi Preface Every person has a unique story to tell. My story is about cancer. Cancer touches the lives of countless people. Often enough, it leaves indelible tracks. Many lives have been lost; others are forever changed. For those who confront this deadly scourge, there is a sense of urgency, if not of desperation. For those who face im- nent death, life becomes even more precious and carries a special meaning. As an oncologist, I am touched daily by cancer. I feel its inception, evolution, and aft- math. It seems as though we are fighting an incessant war against cancer at the front line in the trenches. This is my story about cancer. Some people are terrific storytellers. Others have incredible tales to tell.
 

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Since the findings of Dr. Hernan Acevedo et als. proving that all cancers of any type or origin (pathological sections or clonal cultured samples) show genetic identity and biochemical expressions identical or similar to pregnancy trophoblasts (the sole origin of the placenta), the idea of searching the realm of the diploid totipotent or 'stem' cell stage of cellular development has been a commonplace in all informed research with regard to cancers. The only alternative was the belief that differentiated or perhaps some quasi-differentiated cell could 'de-differentiate' so as to the evolve the aggressive nature of pregnancy trophoblasts. Since such thinking involves so many different problems in regard to intrinsic limitations of cellular programing, and energy pathways, the simpler idea was that there must be a 'residue' of 'relatively primitive' cells regularly distributed through-out the soma capable of either total differentiation or even reduction division or development of haploid cells or germ-cell potency. This has to be considered, since, in some forms of unregulated growth, tumors arise with developments of rudimentary eyes, limbs or other differentiated tissues in the wrong places. These 'chimeras' can only have arisen from some cell with the same potency as the original zygote, the ultimate totipotent or 'stem' cell. And we deem that such potency only occurs after two haploid disparate cells combine.
However, the entire genetic code for trophoblast is retained in every complete genome of every cell. The preponderance of function of a differentiated cell presents a large energy barrier for any differentiated cell as a candidate for the most primitive cell in the life-cycle. It is not unreasonable to, therefore, presume that this 'residue' of most undifferentiated cells remains and is preserved for the sake of regeneration of the various cellular systems that might become defunct due to the Hayflick limitations. In which case, upon activation, it would not be unreasonable to consider that wholesale organ regeneration might involve a natural or normal expression of trophoblastic potency . . . towards the end of digestion of the defunct tissues . . . which trophoblast is most excellent a candidate to accomplish. Thereafter the 'stem cells' will have room to fill in the 'cleared out' arena and the same systems of control of trophoblast that occur in pregnancy will ensue: obliteration of these mediating cells by hydrolytic enzymatic digestion. This is a form of rebirth of the system of the body in place, just as pregnancy is replacement of the race through time. In the case of the individual, it is clonal, in the case of the race it is heterogeneous. The principle of control of pregnancy trophoblasts are the digestive enzymes of fetus and mother. In the case of the regenerating individual, it is entirely the digestive apparatus of that individual. This is the primary limitation facing the individual. And any and all forms of helps to the digestive potency are what determine the difference between successful regeneration and failure thereof. Just thinking maybe.
 

Contents

Introduction
1
Cancer Myths
7
History of Cancer
19
Origin of Cancer
32
Stem Cells
43
Stem Cells and Cancer
55
Cancer Stem Cells
67
Cancer Niche
82
Heterogeneity of Cancer
129
Metastasis
137
Cancer Immunity
147
Drug Resistance
161
Paradigm Shifts
176
Experimental Proof
187
Clinical Implications
201
Curing Cancer
215

Ontogeny and Oncology
93
Diagnosis and Prognosis
103
Cancer Targets
114
Epilogue
226
Glossary
235
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