Origins of Intelligence Services: The Ancient Near East, Persia, Greece, Rome, Byzantium, the Arab Muslim Empires, the Mongol Empire, China, Muscovy
Efficient, swift, and dependable intelligence services were essential to the growth and well-being of every major empire in recorded history. Tactics and devices of amazing subtlety- such as secret police, counter-intelligence, and, above all, swift communications, were employed even by the early civilizations of the ancient Near East. Perhaps the supreme accomplishment of its time was the vast intelligence network established by the Mongol Empire, which extended from the Pacific Ocean westward to the heart of central Europe.
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Intelligence in the Ancient Near East
Intelligence in the Roman Empire
Carthaginian Possessions 218 B C 55
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