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Geographic affinities of the North American Mecoptera
Faunal relationships between eastern North America and Europe as shown
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affinities Alaska arctic species arctic-subarctic areas Asia assemblages beetle fauna Beringia Biogeography Bittacus Boreal life zones British Columbia Canadian carabid circumboreal climate coast Coastal region Coleoptera continental continents deglaciation Diptera dispersal diversity dry tundra east eastern North America Edmunds elements endemic Ephemeroptera Euramerica Europe extend Faeroes fauna faune forest fossil genera genus glaciation habitats high arctic high boreal Holarctic ice sheet Iceland introduced species land bridge Late Wisconsinan Lepidoptera Leptophlebiidae Lindroth low arctic Low Boreal mayflies Mecoptera Mountain Nearctic Nebria noctuid Nord North America North Atlantic islands North Greenland northern northwestern number of species occur origin Pacific Palaearctic Panorpa phylogenetic Plecoptera Pleistocene populations post-glacial probably Pterostichus ranges recent refugia refugium relationships represented restricted southern fauna southern Greenland species groups steppe stippled stoneflies Strait studies subspecies suggest Surtsey synanthropic Tachinidae taiga taxa taxonomic Tertiary tundra tundra species West Wolff yr B.P. Yukon