Overweight and the Metabolic Syndrome:: From Bench to Bedside

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George A. Bray, Louisiana State University, Donna Ryan
Springer Science & Business Media, Feb 16, 2007 - Medical - 336 pages
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Overweight and the Metabolic Syndrome will provide an overview of topics related to obesity, including associated health risks, childhood obesity, genetics, evaluation, treatment, behavioral strategies, and successes and failures in preventing obesity.

The body composition that underlies obesity and the metabolic syndrome is key to understanding the problem. The mechanisms by which energy balance is maintained is key to how the problem goes wrong. The metabolic syndrome is in part a consequence of central fat storage, but includes more issues such as insulin resistance, low levels of inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. This volume will cover evaluation guidelines, different approaches to treatment, including diet, exercise, behavior, drugs, and surgery to deal with the current world-wide obesity epidemic.

 

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Contents

Neuroendocrine Control of Food Intake
1
2 CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM REGULATION OF FEEDING BEHAVIOR
2
31 Cholecystokinin
3
32 Peptide YY
5
33 Ghrelin
6
34 Amylin
7
36 Glucagonlike Peptide
8
38 Oxyntomodulin
9
RISKBENEFIT ASSESSMENT
183
REFERENCES
184
Dietary Approaches to Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome
187
2 LOWFAT DIETS
188
3 VERYLOWFAT DIETS
191
4 MODERATEFAT DIETS
192
41 Efficacy of Moderatefat Diets on Weight Loss Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes
193
5 HIGHPROTEIN DIETS
195

39 Leptin
10
41 Leptin and Insulin Signaling in Dietinduced Obesity
12
5 SUMMARY
13
Body Composition Assessment of Obesity
22
2 OVERVIEW OF BODY COMPOSITION METHODS
24
23 Body Mass Index
25
24 Abdominal Circumference
26
25 Skinfolds
27
26 Bioelectric Impedance Analysis
28
27 Body Density
29
3 ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN BODY COMPOSITION
30
5 RECOMMENDATIONS
31
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
32
Prevalence of Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome
37
2 PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROGRAMS
44
3 THE METABOLIC SYNDROME
45
4 PREVENTIVE AND CONTROL STRATEGIES
47
5 FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
48
REFERENCES
49
The Genetic Contribution to Obesity
54
2 OBESITY AS A COMMON COMPLEX PHENOTYPE
56
AN EVOLUTIONARY GENETIC PERSPECTIVE ON OBESITY
57
4 APPROACHES TO OBESITY GENE DISCOVERY
58
41 Candidate Gene Association Study
59
43 mRNA
60
52 Oligogenic Obesity
62
6 EVIDENCE FOR THE GENETIC CONTRIBUTION TO OBESITY IN HUMANS
63
62 Genetic Contribution to Common Human Obesity
66
7 CONCLUSION
72
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
73
Etiology of Obesity The Problem of Maintaining Energy Balance
83
2 NEURAL CONTROL OF THE DEFENDED BODY WEIGHT
85
3 OBESITY AND THE PROBLEM OF MAINTAINING BODY WEIGHT
88
4 HOW IS BODY WEIGHT REALLY REGULATED?
90
5 FACTORS THAT LOWER THE DEFENDED BODY WEIGHT
91
REFERENCES
92
Current Views of the Fat Cell as an Endocrine Cell Lipotoxicity
104
3 CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH LIPOTOXICITY
106
4 MECHANISMS OF LIPOTOXICITY
108
5 INHERENT PROPERTIES OF CELLS CONTRIBUTE TO SUSCEPTIBILITY TO LIPOTOXICITY
111
7 MECHANISMS OF DEFENSE AGAINST LIPOTOXICITY
112
8 PREADIPOCYTES AND FAT CELLS ARE MORE RESISTANT THAN OTHER CELL TYPES TO FA
114
9 SUMMARY
116
10 CONCLUSIONS
117
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
118
Ectopic Fat and the Metabolic Syndrome
125
2 CONSEQUENCES OF EXCESS ADIPOSITY TO WHOLEBODY GLUCOSE HOMEOSTASIS
126
3 FFAINDUCED INSULIN RESISTANCE
127
4 ECTOPIC FAT IN SKELETAL MUSCLE AND INSULIN RESISTANCE
128
5 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ECTOPIC FAT IN LIVER AND INSULIN RESISTANCE
129
6 HUMAN LIPODYSTROPHIC SYNDROMES
130
7 CONCLUDING REMARKS
131
REFERENCES
132
Abdominal Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome
137
2 METABOLIC SYNDROME WITHOUT HYPERGLYCEMIA PREDICTS AN INCREASED CHD RISK
140
3 WHY MEASURE WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE AS WELL AND NOT JUST BMI?
141
THE DRIVING FORCE BEHIND THE METABOLIC SYNDROME?
143
6 ARE NCEPATP III CRITERIA VALID IN ALL POPULATIONS?
144
WHAT SHOULD BE OUR GOAL?
145
8 SUMMARY
146
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
148
The Problems of Childhood Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome
153
IMPACT OF OBESITY
154
3 EFFECTS OF INSULIN RESISTANCE HOMAIR ON THE PREVALENCE OF THE METABOLIC SYNDROME
155
4 PROINFLAMMATORY AND ANTIINFLAMMATORY MARKERS AND INSULIN RESISTANCE
158
5 PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE PREDIABETIC PHENOTYPE IN YOUTH
159
6 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INSULIN RESISTANCE AND TISSUE LIPID PARTITIONING
160
7 EARLY REDUCTION OF βCELL SENSITIVITY TO GLUCOSE IN OBESE YOUTH WITH IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE
162
8 LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHANGES IN GLUCOSE TOLERANCE STATUS IN OBESE YOUTH
164
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
165
Evaluation of the Overweight and Obese Patient
169
2 DEFINITIONS
170
4 INSTRUMENTAL METHODS FOR MEASURING BODY FAT
171
41 Dual Xray Absorptiometry
172
43 Isotope Dilution
173
8 PREVALENCE OF OVERWEIGHT
174
9 CLINICAL EVALUATION OF OVERWEIGHT PATIENTS
176
92 Waist Circumference
178
95 Laboratory and Other Measures
179
11 ETIOLOGIC FACTORS UNDERLYING OBESITY
180
51 Efficacy of Highprotein Diets on Weight Loss
196
6 LOWCARBOHYDRATE DIETS
198
7 LOW GLYCEMIC INDEX DIET
202
8 CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR RESEARCH
205
Exercise as an Approach to Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome
211
3 IMPACT OF EXERCISE ON WEIGHT LOSS
213
4 EXERCISE PRESCRIPTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR LONGTERM WEIGHT CONTROL
214
5 SUMMARY
216
Behavioral Strategies for Controlling Obesity
219
2 HISTORY OF BEHAVIORAL STRATEGIES FOR CONTROLLING OBESITY
220
3 BEHAVIORAL TREATMENT FOR ADULTS
221
34 Weight Maintenance Strategies
225
35 Special Considerations
226
4 BEHAVIORAL TREATMENT FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
227
43 Social Support and Parent Training
228
46 Physical Activity
229
5 CONCLUSIONS
230
REFERENCES
231
Obesity Prevention
233
2 DEFINING THE TASK
234
22 Population Perspective
235
3 POPULATIONWIDE APPROACHES
237
31 Initiatives Related to Food
238
33 Social Marketing
239
41 Adults
240
42 Children
243
5 INDIVIDUALLY TARGETED APPROACHES
247
7 METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
248
8 CONCLUSION
249
Orlistat and Sibutramine in the Management of Obesity
254
3 WHY DO HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS CHOOSE NOT TO USE WEIGHT LOSS MEDICATIONS?
257
4 WHAT WEIGHT LOSS DRUGS ARE AVAILABLE?
258
5 HOW SHOULD WEIGHT LOSS IN MEDICATION CLINICAL TRIALS BE EVALUATED?
259
6 SIBUTRAMINE
260
61 Mechanism of Action
261
63 Efficacy in Weight Loss Maintenance
262
64 Efficacy in Managing Obesityrelated Risk Factors
264
65 Tolerability and Safety
265
66 Special Considerations when Prescribing Sibutramine
266
71 Mechanism of Action
267
73 Efficacy in Weight Loss Maintenance
270
75 Tolerability and Safety
271
76 Special Considerations when Prescribing Orlistat
272
82 Combination Therapy
273
9 SUMMARY
274
A Status of Drugs on the Horizon for Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome a Comprehensive Review 2005
281
2 DRUGS APPROVED FOR INDICATIONS OTHER THAN OBESITY AND THAT CAUSE WEIGHT LOSS
282
22 FluoxetineSertraline
283
23 Zonisamide
284
25 Metformin
285
26 Somatostatin
286
27 Pramlintide
287
3 DRUGS IN PHASE III CLINICAL TRIALS WITH NO APPROVAL
288
32 Axokine
289
4 DRUGS IN THE EARLY PHASES OF DEVELOPMENT
290
44 Oleoylestrone
291
47 Melanin Concentrating Hormone Receptor1 Antagonist
292
5 DRUGS NO LONGER UNDER INVESTIGATION OR WITHDRAWN
293
53 Phenylpropanolamine
294
55 Ecopipam
295
64 Modulators of Energy Sensing in the Brain Acetyl CoA Carboxylase 2 Inhibitor Fatty Acid Synthase Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase3
296
7 NATURAL PRODUCTS OVERTHECOUNTER PREPARATIONS
297
73 Chitosan
298
76 Citrus aurantium
299
REFERENCES
300
Surgical Treatment of the Overweight Patient
307
2 SURGICAL APPROACHES TO OBESITY AND THEIR HISTORICAL CONTEXT
309
3 INDICATIONS AND CONTRAINDICATIONS
310
33 Bariatric Surgery for the Pediatric Age Group
311
4 EFFECTIVENESS OF SURGICAL PROCEDURES
312
5 MECHANISMS FOR WEIGHT LOSS
315
6 BENEFITS FROM BARIATRIC SURGERY
316
7 COMPLICATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BARIATRIC SURGERY
318
73 Complications with Malabsorptive Operations
319
8 OTHER OPERATIVE PROCEDURES FOR THE OVERWEIGHT PATIENT
321
9 SUMMARY
322
REFERENCES
323
Index
328
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