Painting the Sacred in the Age of Romanticism
After a century of Rationalist scepticism and political upheaval, the nineteenth century awakened to a fierce battle between the forces of secularization and the crusaders of a Christian revival. From this battlefield arose an art movement that would become the torchbearer of a new religious art: Nazarenism. From its inception in the Lukasbund of 1809, this art was controversial. It nonetheless succeeded in becoming a lingua franca in religious circles throughout Europe, America, and the world at large. This is the first major study of the evolution, structure, and conceptual complexity of this archetypically nineteenth-century language of belief and provides a rich account of the theory and practice of religious representation in nineteenth-century art.
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aesthetic allegory anti-Judaism anti-Semitic Apostles artists Bibel in Bildern Bible in Pictures biblical Bien Brentano Catholic century Christ Christian Church Clemens Brentano cm image commentary composition concept contemporary cycle David depiction divine Doré embodied emphatically example Ferdinand Olivier figures Franz Pforr Frauenlob fresco Friedrich Schlegel German hieroglyph Holy Ibid iconography ideal illustrations imagery interpretation Jesus Jewish Jews Johann Friedrich Overbeck Joseph Julius Schnorr Kunst Ludwig Vogel Lukasbruder Lukasbund Mary meaning medieval Merz metaphor modern motif Munich narrative nature Nazarene art Nazarene movement Nicolas Poussin nineteenth-century oil on canvas Old Testament Olivier's Orsel painter painting panel Philipp Veit pictorial picture's Pietas and Vanitas Poussin quote reading religion religious representation Romantic Rudolf scene Schnorr von Carolsfeld Schnorr's Bible Scriptures secular Seven Sacraments Song of Songs spiritual Sulamith and Maria symbolic theological tradition tree typology Victor Orsel viewer Virgin visual Wilhelm Schadow wood engraving