PALAEOEPIDEMIOLOGY: THE MEASURE OF DISEASE IN THE HUMAN PAST
How do we identify and measure human disease in the past? In the absence of soft tissue, paleoepidemiologists have developed ingenious ways of assessing illness and mortality in archaeological populations. In this volume, the key methods of epidemiology are outlined for non-specialists, showing the importance of studying prevalence over incidence, adjustments needed in studying past groups, how to compare studies, and the dangers of assessing occupation based upon bone evidence. A model for planning a proper paleoepidemiological study concludes the volume. Both as an introduction to epidemiology for archaeologists, and as a primer on archaeological analysis for epidemiologists, this book should serve the needs of both populations.
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The Development of Epidemiology
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affected Age Group age-specific prevalences arthropathy asthma Austin Bradford Hill bias bones Bradford Hill calculated caries case-control study Chapter clinical column common odds ratio compared confidence interval consider controls criteria denominator Dental determined diagnosis Endnotes Enthesopathies epidemiological studies epidemiology estimate examined example expected number exposure factors frequently hay fever Health Hooton human remains indirect standardisation International Journal Interobserver investigator joint disease Journal of Osteoarchaeology live births living population London measure Medicine method modern epidemiology Mortality Rate number of deaths number of individuals number of live observations odds ratio operational definition osteoarthritis outcome variable Oxford palaeoepidemiology palaeopathology patient prevalence of osteoarthritis proportional mortality random number referred relative risk rheumatism rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatology sample scale skeletal assemblage skeleton spine spondylitis spondylolysis Standardised prevalence Standardised rate ratio Statistical statisticians stillbirth study-base Taphonomy teeth tion total number tuberculosis Type II error University Press Waldron