Pamphlets on Protozoology (Kofoid Collection)

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Page 166 - Percolating water, containing dissolved carbon dioxide, the so-called carbonic acid gas, readily dissolves the calcium and other metallic salts up to a certain limit. The water with the dissolved matter in it runs along underground until an outlet is reached and issues in the form of a spring. This, in turn, uniting with other springs forms a stream which runs into a lake, carrying along with it the greater part of its mineral load. If the amount of carbon dioxide contained in the water is considerable,...
Page 168 - ... deposits of marl which are known. If one confines his studies simply to the seed-producing plants and other large vegetable forms which are conspicuous in lakes during the summer season, while he will find them covered with a thin coating of manifestly calcareous matter, he will at once be convinced that such work as these plants are doing is but a small factor in the total sedimentation of the lake. On the other hand, if a visit be made to a lake in early spring or late fall, all plants of the...
Page 168 - ... other plants obtained, until a depth of water was reached at which Chara was able to occupy the bed of muck, covering it from the bottom up, and holding the steep slope of the muck in place by mechanically binding it there by its stems and the root-like bodies by which it is connected with the mud. From the time when the Chara began its occupation of the muck the amount of organic matter left would decrease, and the amount of calcareous deposit would increase, until the latter predominated. The...
Page 168 - ... add themselves to the little spheroid, and entangle particles of solid matter, which in turn are held by new growths of the lime-precipitating Zonotrichia, and thus a pebble of greater or less size is formed which to the casual observer is in no wise different from an ordinary water- rounded pebble. These algal calcareous pebbles show both radial and concentric structure and might well be taken for concretions formed by rolling some sticky substance over and over in the wet marl on which they...
Page 169 - ... coarser, slightly yellowish, and more compact. Where it lies above the water line it is distinctly made up of granular and irregular angular fragments, resembling coarse sand, but the fragments are very brittle, soft, and friable, and may be converted into powder by rubbing between the thumb and fingers. On the parts of the shores where apparently the wave action is chiefly exerted, there are small rounded calcareous pebbles, mixed with molluscan shells, drift material, and considerable quantities...
Page 194 - Desmid-rieh area, one in which 150-200 (or even 300) species can be found in more or less abundance, is amply satisfied by Dartmoor, with 290 species, 92 varieties, and about 30 forms.
Page 168 - ... carbon dioxide present in the water at all, the precipitation may be considered a purely chemical problem, a solution of which may be looked for in the action upon the bicarbonates, of the oxygen set free by the plants. Of these calcium bicarbonate is the most abundant, and the reaction upon it may be taken as typical and expressed by the following chemical equation...
Page 168 - If the calcium and other salts are in excess in the water, and are held in solution by free carbon dioxide, then the more or less complete abstraction of the gas from the water in direct contact with plants causes precipitation of the salts upon the parts abstracting the gas, namely, stems and leaves. But in water containing amounts of the salts, especially of the calcium bicarbonate, so small that they would not be precipitated if there were no free carbon dioxide present in the water at all, the...
Page 169 - Michigan. 1 i northeastern or inlet end, is a cedar swamp which is underlaid by marl. The outlet is through the most southerly of the daughter-lakes, and the entire shore of the lake is formed by beautifully white marl, the exposures varying in width from a few feet to three or four rods in width, so that as one overlooks the lake from one of the surrounding hills it seems to lay in a basin of white marble. There are three small islands in the lake, two relatively near together at the northern end,...
Page 168 - ... muck," or pure vegetable debris, of equal thickness. This distribution may show that up to a certain time conditions unfavorable to the growth of Chara are favorable to other plants obtained, until a depth of water was reached at which Chara was able to occupy the bed of muck, covering it from the bottom up, and holding the...

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