Paper Chemistry

Front Cover
J.C. Roberts
Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 31, 1995 - Technology & Engineering - 267 pages
2 Reviews
Although the title of this book is Paper Chemistry, it should be considered as a text about the chemistry of the formation of paper from aqueous suspensions of fibre and other additives, rather than as a book about the chemistry of the raw material itself. It is the subject of what papermakers call wet-end chemistry. There are many other excellent texts on the chemistry of cellulose and apart from one chapter on the accessibility of cellulose, the subject is not addressed here. Neither does the book deal with the chemistry of pulp preparation (from wood, from other plant sources or from recycled fibres), for there are also many excellent texts on this subject. The first edition of this book was a great success and soon became established as one of the Bibles of the industry. Its achievement then was to collect the considerable advances in understanding which had been made in the chemistry of papermaking in previous years, and provide, for the first time, a sound physico chemical basis of the subject. This new edition has been thoroughly updated with much new material added. The formation of paper is a continuous filtration process in which cellulosic fibres are formed into a network which is then pressed and dried. The important chemistry involved in this process is firstly the retention of col loidal material during filtration and secondly the modification of fibre and sheet properties so as to widen the scope for the use of paper and board products.
 

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Contents

Applications of paper chemistry
1
12 Paper chemical use in specific product grades
3
121 Newsprint
4
123 Tissue and sanitary
5
13 Trends in paper chemical use
6
133 Retention and drainage aids
7
136 Wetstrength additives
8
Accessibility of cellulose
9
823 The forms of rosin used in papermaking
121
83 Sizing theories
125
832 The interaction between rosin and cellulose fibres leading to sizing
128
833 Implications of the strong bondweak bond theory
133
84 Rosin sizing at pHs greater than 55
135
85 Summary
137
References
138
Neutral and alkaline sizing
140

23 Determination of crystallinityaccessibility of cellulose
12
231 Physical methods
13
232 Chemical methods
15
233 Sorption methods
17
234 Comparison of results from different techniques
19
References
22
Electrokinetics of the papermaking industry
25
33 Origin of the charge on papermaking fines fibres mineral pigments and fillers
28
34 The classical coagulation theory DLVO theory 14
30
35 Electrophoresis and electrokinetic phenomena calculation of the zeta potential 14
32
36 Some experimental methods of determining the zeta potential
34
362 Electroosmosis
37
363 Streaming potential
38
37 Polyelectrolyte titrations 916
39
372 Determination of surface charge of solids by means of colloid titration
40
373 Instrumentation of colloid titration
42
Mechanisms of flocculation and stabilisation of suspensions by organic polymers
44
42 Behaviour of suspensions of bare particles
45
422 Limitations of electrostatic stabilisationdestabilisation phenomena
47
43 A brief insight into polymer conformations in solution and at solidliquid interfaces
48
general characteristics for nonionic polymers and highly charged polyelectrolytes
49
effect of charge content on polyelectrolyte adsorption
51
bridging flocculation and steric stabilisation
54
442 Steric stabilisation and incipient flocculation
56
45 Flocculation by polyelectrolytes
57
452 The mixed situations
59
453 Flocculation by branched polyelectrolytes and microgels
60
46 Conclusions
62
Retention aids
63
52 The chemical nature of retention aids
65
522 Retention aids based on natural organic raw materials
66
53 Mode of action of retention aids
71
531 Characterisation of retention aids
72
532 Adsorption on interfaces
73
533 Electrokinetic effects of polymer adsorption
75
54 Concluding remarks
79
References
80
Drystrength additives
83
62 Cationic starch
85
623 Mechanism of strength development
86
624 Highly filled papers
87
626 Adsorption of cationic starch on furnish components
90
627 Distribution of cationic starch in the furnish
91
63 Vegetable gums
93
631 Mechanisms
94
641 Mechanisms
96
Wetstrength chemistry
98
72 Mechanisms of wetstrength development
99
731 Ureaformaldehyde resins
100
732 Melamineformaldehyde resins
102
733 Epoxidised polyamide resins
104
734 Glyoxalated polyacryiamide resins
107
735 Comparison of properties of the predominant commercial resins
110
737 Dialdehyde starch
112
738 Other wetstrength resins
114
75 Assessing the efficiency of wetstrength resins
115
76 Future trends
116
References
117
The sizing of paper with rosin and alum at acid pHs
120
92 Reasons for changing to neutral sizing
144
93 Alkyl ketene dimers
145
933 Reactivity
147
934 Practical considerations
150
94 Alkenyl succinic anhydride
151
942 Emulsification
153
944 Practical consideration
156
96 Neutral rosin sizing systems
158
962 Neutral rosin sizing with PAC
159
Dyes and fluorescent whitening agents for paper
161
102 Basic concepts of colour
162
1022 Colour and constitution
163
103 Classification of dyes and pigments
165
1032 Classification by chemical structure
173
104 Dyes and pigments for paper
175
105 Application of dyes and pigments to paper
178
1051 Theory of attractive forces between dyes and cellulose molecules
179
1052 Influences of various factors used in the colouration of paper stock
180
1053 Common problems and possible causes and cures
182
1054 Printing of paper
184
1062 Chemical constitution of FWAs
185
1063 Structure and fluorescence
186
1064 Application of FWAs to paper
187
107 Ecotoxicology
189
1071 Physical form
190
1073 Chemical constitution
191
Acknowledgements
192
Physical and chemical aspects of the use of fillers in paper
194
112 Filler properties
195
1122 Surface chemistry
199
113 Retention
202
1132 Electrokinetic effects
203
114 The effect of filler on paper properties
210
1142 The intrinsic properties of fillers
221
115 General summary
227
References
228
Measurement and control
231
122 Current status of wetend chemistry measurement
232
123 Problems in measurement and control in wetend chemistry
233
124 Online wetend chemistry instrumentation
234
1241 Dissolved inorganics
235
1245 Other measurement techniques
236
125 Process control in wetend chemistry
237
126 Online retention monitoring systems
240
Chemtronics 4000 system Sweden 21516
241
127 Monitoring of online surface charge
243
128 Methodology for complete automatic retention control
244
1282 Selection of monitoring systems and sensors
246
129 Applicability of new sensing devices and techniques
247
1294 Magnetic sensing devices
248
References
249
Practical applications of paper chemistry
250
133 Starch
252
134 Sizing
256
135 Deposit control
257
136 Difficulties and limitations of practical applications
260
References
261
Index
265
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