Pathmakers: Cultural Landscape Report for the Historic Hiking Trail System of Mount Desert Island : Acadia National Park, Maine : History, Existing Conditions & Analysis

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Government Printing Office, 2006 - Acadia National Park (Me.) - 328 pages
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Documents the history and significance of the trail system on Mount Desert Island, Maine.

Many of Acadia National Park's foot trails preceded the establishment of the park. The earliest pathmakers were Abenakis, who made trails for carrying canoes between lakes and for other practical reasons. European settlers later developed recreation trails. Summer visitors organized Village Improvement Associations and Village Improvement Societies, whose path committee volunteers created trails that were incorporated, in 1916, into the new Sieur de Monts National Monument, precursor to Lafayette National Park (1919). Ten years later, the protected area was renamed Acadia National Park. It was the first national park to have sprung full-blown from philanthropy.

Volunteers and park crews, including President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Civilian Conservation Corps in the 1930s and early 1940s, expanded and maintained the trail system. Friends of Acadia was formed in 1986 to extend the philanthropic vision of the park founders. The organization later mounted Acadia Trails Forever, which matched $4 million in park entry fees with $9 million in private donations, to rehabilitate the footpaths over ten years. The model project made Acadia the first national park with an endowed trail system.
Each era of trail building and its individual pathmakers utilized different construction styles, standards and aesthetic nuances. The job of today's professional trail crew and its legion of volunteers is to honor the pathmakers of old by replicating their construction signatures whenever possible. National parks, after all, are repositories of history and culture, and the Park Service's legal duty of care is to preserve these magnificent places "unimpaired for the use and enjoyment of future generations."

Three important books guide Acadia's trail crews in that obligation: Preserving Historic Trails, the proceedings from an October 2000 conference of trail building experts from across the nation; this volume, Pathmakers: Cultural Landscape Report for the Historic Hiking Trail System of Acadia National Park (2005), a profusely illustrated history of trail building; and the second volume of the cultural landscape report, Acadia Trails Treatment Plan (2005), which lays out precise construction and maintenance techniques favoring the historically faithful preservation of Acadia's footpaths. These authoritative resources, and the park's Hiking Trails Management Plan, were compiled with input from one of the best kept secrets in the National Park Service, the Olmsted Center for Landscape Preservation, a coterie of landscape architects, historians and writers tucked away in Brookline, Massachusetts. The Olmsted staff collaborated over several years with Acadia's trail crew, one of the best in the 388-unit National Park System.

Each year, the Acadia Trails Forever project brings more trails up to the rehabilitation standards set forth in the cultural landscape report. Previously neglected features such as iron work, granite steps, bog bridges, log stringers, water bars, rock drains. Bates-style cairns and other historic features are carefully redone or added, complementing Acadia's natural splendor.

Audience
Environmentalists, Historians, Educators, and Students would find it interesting to learn about the history of Acadia National Park and the people that work to preserve it.

Other related products:

Acadia Trails Treatment Plan: Cultural Landscape Report for the Historic Hiking Trail System of Acadia National Park can be found here:https://bookstore.gpo.gov/products/sku/024-003-00196-1

Designing Sustainable Off-Highway Vehicle Trails : An Alaska Trail Manager\'s Perspective can be found here:https://bookstore.gpo.gov/products/sku/001-001-00701-3

National Trails System: Map and Guide, 2010 Edition (Package of 100) can be found here: https://bookstore.gpo.gov/products/sku/024-005-01277-0

Other products produced by the U.S. National Park Service can be found here:https://bookstore.gpo.gov/agency/222


 

 

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Contents

EARLY TRAILS
11
CREATION OF AN ISLANDWIDE TRAIL SYSTEM
41
Diagrams of walking paths in the vicinity of Bar Harbor 1890
44
Map by Rand of Mount Desert Island 1893
46
Diagram of walking paths on Newport Mountain 1894
47
First path map of the eastern part of Mount Desert Island 1896
49
Map of Mount Desert Island showing paths on the western side 1896
50
Path map of the eastern part of Mount Desert Island 1899
51
Path map of the eastern part of Mount Desert Island 1932 no 86 Path map of the western part of Mount Desert Island 1932
111
MANAGEMENT OF A NATIONAL PARK TRAIL SYSTEM
121
Master Plan for the trail system 1935
124
Design standards by Kittredge for National Park Service trails
125
Design for the Otter Cliffs Trail 1937
126
Construction of an overlook on the Otter Cliffs Trail 1937
127
Steps for path near Thunder Hole along Ocean Drive circa 1937
128
Vegetation added to stonework on the Perpendicular Trail
129

LAND PROTECTION AND PATH SYSTEM EXPANSION 19001916
58
Dorr Woods Bicycle Path 1895
59
Dedication of the Champlain Monument 1906
61
How plaque above Fawn Pond
62
Cadillac Cliffs Path circa 1915
63
General instructions for work on paths by Waldron Bates 1906
64
Path map of the eastern part of Mount Desert Island 1909
66
Waldron Bates plaque near the Cadillac Cliffs circa 1915
67
Kane Path circa 1916
68
Original entrance to Beachcroft Path circa 1920
69
Steps and walls on the Emery Path circa 1922
70
Bench on the Jesup Path circa 1916
71
Stepping stones across outlet of The Tarn circa 1916
72
Compass Harbor Pond along the Wild Gardens Path circa 1920
73
Stone pavement on Orange and Black Path
74
Hanging steps on Orange and Black Path
75
Climbing rungs on the Precipice Path circa 1920
76
Steps on the Asticou Trail circa 1920
77
Stepping stones on the Asticou Trail circa 1920
79
Cairn in the Seal Harbor path district 1907
80
Stones lining Seaside Path near Seal Harbor circa 1900
81
Trails radiating from Seal Harbor circa 1911
82
Day Mountain Cave Trail
83
Stone and iron work on the Van Santvoord Trail S3 72 Steps on the Moss Trail on Western Mountain circa 1916
84
Path map of the eastern part of Mount Desert Island 1916
86
CREATION OF A NATIONAL PARK 191632
98
Stanley Brook carriage road bridge and Seaside Path
100
Steps on North Ridge Trail Cadillac Mountain
101
Kane and Bridgham Memorial Bridge at Lakewood circa 1929
102
A Murray Young Path and commemorative bronze plaque
104
Real estate map of Northeast Harbor showing village paths 1928
106
Log steps and iron on the South Bubble Cliff Trail circa 1920 w7 84 Hikers on North Bubble Cliff Trail circa 1950
107
Moving stones on the Ocean Drive Trail
130
Rubble base for trail on Cadillac Mountain
131
Completed gravel surface for trail on Cadillac Mountain 731
132
Bridge on the Great Meadow Path
133
Fish pools at Cold Spring Brook
134
1n Stonecutting on the Ladder Trail circa 1935 13s 112 Step construction on the Ladder Trail circa 1935 13s 113 Stonework at the entrance of the L...
135
Completed entrance and sign for the Ladder Trail circa 1935 13s 115 Steps on the Perpendicular Trail circa 1934
136
signs by the Gilley Trail 1930s
137
Master Plan for the Bar Harbor area 1941
139
Path map of the western part of Mount Desert Island 1941
140
Path map of the eastern part of Mount Desert Island 1941
141
USGS topographic map with trails on western side 1942
142
USGS topographic map with trails on eastern side 1942
143
FIRE OBLITERATION MISSION 66 AND PARK TRAILS PROGRAM 19432003
149
Area affected by the 1947 fire
150
Appalachian Mountain Club trail map 1961
153
Mission 66 plan for the Beech Mountain Trail
155
Mission 66 profile and construction details for the Beech Mountain Trail J55 128 Mission 66 fire tower on the Beech Mountain Trail
156
Path map of the eastern part of Mount Desert Island 1972
157
Path map of the western part of Mount Desert Island 1972 15S 131 Exposed roots on the western side of the Jordan Pond Loop Trail 1997
159
Footbridge on the northern end of Jordan Pond 1997
160
Trailhead post sign 1998
161
Map of Seal Harbor VIS trails 1994
162
Training program sponsored by the NPS and AMC 1973
163
Installation of checks on Ocean Path 1997
165
Acadia Youth Conservation Corps moving stones at Jordan Pond 2003
166
Reopening Homans Path 2003
167
ANALYSIS OF SIGNIFICANCE AND INTEGRITY
179
REFERENCES
201
INDEX
317
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