Patterns of Poverty Across Europe
It is widely accepted that income poverty should be defined in relative terms - but relative to where? Almost all household poverty statistics count the number of poor in relation to the national average of the country they are living in. Would the picture be different if we compared families' incomes with the local regional average? Or why not compare incomes across the whole of Europe? Using new EU-wide data, this report shows very different patterns of poverty across Europe, depending on the benchmark used. From a European perspective, the poor are heavily concentrated in Portugal, south-western Spain, southern Italy and Greece. The research also tests two methods of calibrating poverty lines to show which level of area offers the most sensitive indicator of social exclusion. The results fail to corroborate the conventional view that nationally based poverty lines are the most appropriate basis for international comparisons. This report provides a new international perspective to policy makers both within each country and at EU level. It offers new comparative insights to economists interested in the distribution of income, and to sociologists studying relative deprivation. Studies in poverty, inequality and social exclusion series Series Editor: David Gordon, Director, Townsend Centre for International Poverty Research. Poverty, inequality and social exclusion remain the most fundamental problems that humanity faces in the 21st century. This exciting series, published in association with the Townsend Centre for International Poverty Research at the University of Bristol, aims to make cutting-edge poverty related research more widely available. For other titles in this series, please follow the series link from the main catalogue page.
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90th percentile annual income Belgium calculated calibrate poverty lines Chapters coefficient compared comparison country and regional country median income country’s current income decile Denmark derived distribution of income East Germany ECHP Emilia-Romagna ends meet Estimated number European Union Eurostat excluding southern Europe Figure 3.c Finland five large countries France Germany Gini coefficient Greece GSOEP hardship poverty lines higher Ile de France income distribution income measure income variations Index of inequality inequality index Ireland Italy Laeken summit low-income countries Luxembourg mainland Greece median income PPS national benchmarks national median incomes National relative poverty Netherlands normative poverty lines number of households number of poor Pas-de-Calais plotted by regional poor households Portugal proportion of households purchasing power questions range of inequality Region-level regional analysis regional benchmark regional median income regions plotted regions within countries regression equation relative poverty rates Saxony-Anhalt Spain Sweden variations between countries weighted within-country inequality