Peacekeeping and Related Stability Operations
The second session of the 109th Congress may well face decisions regarding the preparation of U.S. military forces for stability missions, a broad doctrinal term of which a major subset is peace operations. A November 28, 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) directive that designates stability operations as "core missions" of the U.S. military marks a major shift on the future necessity of performing peacekeeping and related stability operations (also known as stabilization and reconstruction operations). For over a decade, some Members of Congress expressed reservations about U.S. military involvement in peacekeeping operations. The Bush Administration initially opposed such missions and took steps to reduce the commitment of U.S. troops to international peacekeeping. This action reflected a major concern of the 1990s: that peacekeeping duties had overtaxed the shrinking U.S. military force and were detrimental to military "readiness" i.e., (the ability of U.S. troops to defend the nation). Many perceived these tasks as an inefficient use of U.S. forces, better left to other nations while the U.S. military concentrated on operations requiring high intensity combat skills. Others thought that the United States should adjust its force size and structure to accommodate the missions. The events of 9/11/2001 brought new concerns to the fore and highlighted the value to U.S. national security of ensuring stability around the world. The 9/11 Commission report, which cited Afghanistan, where the Administration has limited U.S. involvement in peacekeeping and nation-building, as a sanctuary for terrorists and pointed to the dangers of allowing actual and potential terrorist sanctuaries to exist. A major issue Congress continues to face is what, if any, adjustments should be made for the U.S. military to perform peacekeeping and stability missions -- in Afghanistan, Iraq, or elsewhere -- with less strain on the force, particularly the reserves.
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Evolution of Roles and Functions
System and Security Gaps
Current Systems and Reforms
United Nations Civilian Police System
US Civilian Police Program
Options for Congress
Other Options to Strengthen Current Capabilities and Address System and Security Gaps
Policing In Selected UN Peacekeeping and Related Operations 19892004 Data Current as of February 2004
Historical Background Early International and Cold War UN Police Operations
Afghanistan analysts argue Bosnia Brahimi Panel Report Brahimi Report Cambodia civilian police personnel CivPol personnel CivPol program component Congo to Kosovo constabulary forces contractor contributing deployed deployment gap DynCorp East Timor enforcement gap establish European European Union February 29 Haiti human rights Implementation institution gap international civilian police international CivPol international police IPTF Iraq law enforcement mandate Mandate/Scope of Activities March Member military forces monitoring Nations Civilian Police NATO on-call ONUMOZ ONUSAL organized OSCE PDD-71 White Paper Peace Operations Peacekeeping and Related peacekeeping operations Perito Police in Peace police missions police officers police operations police units post-conflict situations pre-deployment training problems proposed rapid deployment recruitment reserve rule of law Security Council skills Somalia stability force U.N. civilian police U.N. Mission U.N. operations U.N. peacekeeping U.N. police U.S. CivPol U.S. military U.S. stability force UNCIVPOL UNCIVPOL mission UNITAF United Nations Civilian UNMIH UNMIK UNTAC World Disorder