Pedagogically Founded Courseware Generation for Web-Based Learning: An HTN-Planning-Based Approach Implemented in Paigos

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Springer Science & Business Media, Sep 29, 2008 - Computers - 257 pages
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Automatic course generation is a very important area of research with numerous practical applications in e-learning. It has been studied since the 1980s within the fields of intelligent tutoring, AI and education, adaptive hypermedia and web-based educational systems. Many approaches have been proposed, but hardly any have resulted in generic and practically applied systems. A number of problems have remained unresolved. These problems are addressed by this work.

This book focuses on course generation based on Hierarchical Task Network planning (HTN planning). This course generation framework enables the formalization and application of complex and realistic pedagogical knowledge. The volume describes basic techniques for course generation, which are used to formalize seven different types of courses (for instance, introducing the learner to previously unknown concepts and supporting the learner during rehearsal) and several elementary learning goals (e.g., selecting an appropriate example or exercise). This framework has been implemented and evaluated with good results in several domains, with users from different countries and universities, in the context of an EU project.

Course generation based on HTN planning is implemented in PAIGOS and has been evaluated by technical, formative and summative evaluations.

 

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Contents

Introduction
3
11 Motivation
4
12 Contributions
5
121 ServiceOriented Course Generation
6
123 Adaptivity in Generated Courses
7
13 Overview
8
Relevant Technologies
11
22 Semantic Web Technologies
14
47 Converting a Plan into a Course
92
Dynamic Tasks
99
49 Generation of Narrative Bridges and Structure
100
491 Empirical Findings
101
492 Operator and Methods for Text Generation
103
493 Symbolic Representations of Dynamic Text Items
105
494 Generation of Structure Information
106
410 Summary
108

221 Extensible Markup Language
15
223 OWL Web Ontology Language
16
23 Elearning Standards
17
231 Learning Object Metadata
19
232 IMS Content Packaging
20
233 IMS Simple Sequencing
21
24 Mathematics in the Web
22
25 Course Generation
23
26 Hierarchical Task Network Planning
26
261 Introduction to AIPlanning
27
262 Introduction to Hierarchical Task Network Planning
28
263 SHOP2 and JSHOP2
29
Descriptive and Prescriptive Learning Theories
37
32 Cognitivism
38
34 Instructional Design
39
35 CompetencyBased Learning
40
352 Competency Levels
42
General Principles
45
41 An Ontology of Instructional Objects
46
411 Motivation
47
412 Description of the Ontology
49
413 Why an Ontology?
53
414 Applications of the Ontology
54
42 A Mediator for Accessing Learning Object Repositories
55
422 Overview of the Mediator Architecture
57
424 Ontology Mapping and Query Rewriting
58
425 Repository Interface and Caching
59
426 Limitations of the Mediator as an Educational Service
60
43 Pedagogical Tasks Methods and Strategies
61
44 Representing Course Generation Knowledge in an HTN Planner
65
442 Mapping Pedagogical Tasks onto HTN Tasks
66
443 Course Generation Planning Problems
67
444 Critical and Optional Tasks
68
45 Basic General Purpose Axioms and Operators
69
453 Binding a Variable to All Terms of a Term List
71
46 Basic Operators and Methods of the Course Generation Domain
72
462 Starting and Ending Sections
76
463 Inserting References to LearningSupport Services
78
464 An Operator for Dynamic Text Generation
79
465 Dynamic Subtask Expansion
80
467 Axioms for Accessing the Learner Model
82
468 Processing Resources Depending on Learner Characteristics
86
469 Initializing and Manipulating Information about the Learning Goal
88
Course Generation in Practice Formalized Scenarios
110
511 Course Generation and Constructivism a Contradiction?
112
512 Selecting Exercises
114
513 Selecting Examples
121
514 Scenario Discover
127
515 Scenario Rehearse
142
516 Scenario Connect
145
517 Scenario Train Intensively
150
518 Scenario Train Competencies
153
519 Scenario Exam Simulation
155
52 Course Generation Based on Instructional Design Principles
161
522 Scenario Guided Tour
162
Implementation and Integration
169
62 Integration of PAIGOS in ActiveMath
171
622 Dynamically Generated Elements in a Table of Contents
174
623 Usage of LearningSupport Services in ActiveMath
176
624 TemplateBased Generation of Narrative Bridges
182
625 PAIGOS as a Service in ActiveMath
185
63 Course Generation as a WebService
189
631 Interfaces
190
Evaluation
193
712 Mediator Use Cases and Evaluations
195
714 Performance of PAIGOS
196
715 Discussion
201
721 Formative Evaluations
202
722 Summative Evaluation
205
723 Discussion
213
Related Work
220
82 Generic Tutoring Environment
222
83 Dynamic Courseware Generator
223
84 ACEWINDS
224
85 Former Course Generator of ActiveMath
225
86 APeLSiClass
226
87 SeLeNe
227
88 Statistical Methods for Course Generation
228
89 Approaches Using Hierarchical Task Network Planning
229
810 Ontologies for Instructional Design
230
Future Work and Acknowledgments
231
Complete List of User Comments
233
References
241
Index
255
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