Performance Models for Spatial and Locational Cognition: A Report Prepared for the Office of Naval Research
Rand, Jan 1, 1980 - Geographical perception - 29 pages
Summarizes a three-year investigation of the knowledge and processes people use to learn and make spatial judgments in large-scale environments. Experiments in map learning indicated that both the use of effective study procedures and visual memory ability determine success at learning a map. All but low-ability people benefit from training in effective study procedures. Studies of people's procedures for accuracy at estimating distances on maps indicated that map clutter increases subjective distance between two points. A third series of studies investigated differences in the knowledge people acquire from navigation and from map learning. Studying a map leads to a global representation of the environment, while navigation provides a linear, or procedural representation. Navigation experience is optimal for estimating route distances and orienting oneself toward unseen locations. Map learning is optimal for estimating the shortest distance between two points and determining relative locations of objects.
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DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN KNOWLEDGE ACQUIRED
DISTANCE ESTIMATION FROM LEARNED MAPS
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accurate acquire from navigation ACQUIRED FROM MAPS Angeles Cathleen Stasz Cognitive Maps compass bearings compute destination discussed in Section distance between locations distance between points DP's ences encoding environment extensive navigation experience Hayes-Roth images individual differences intervening points judge route KNOWLEDGE ACQUIRED Knowledge Acquisition knowledge people acquire knowledge representation landmarks large-scale space learn from navigation learned maps learning a map learning procedures locational cognition locational knowledge low-ability subjects map clutter map-learning subjects memory representation mental maps mental simulation Monica Civic Auditorium Nationwide Baby Furniture Navigation subjects number of intervening object locations orientation people's spatial judgments perceptual icons Perry poor learners procedural knowledge Rand Corporation relative location judgments route distance routes connecting Santa Monica Civic scan spatial and locational spatial information spatial judgments depends spatial reasoning strategies subjects estimated distances survey knowledge symbolic abstractions task performance tasks requiring techniques Thorndyke and Stasz tion type of knowledge types of spatial visual memory ability