Phenolic Resins: Chemistry, Applications, Standardization, Safety and Ecology

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, 2000 - Science - 560 pages
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A backward glance of the many new industries that emerged in the 20th century would surely recognize communications, automobile, aircraft, computer and several others that have had a global impact on world economy. Yet another industry, and an often neglected industry, made its debut early in the 20th century - the Plastics Industry. The Plastics Industry owes its identity to the brilliance of Dr. Leo Hendrik Baekeland (1863 -1944). He discovered the technique, currently in use to this day, to manu facture highly crosslinked plastics by transforming monomerk and/or oligomeric phenolic materials into attractive phenolic products. Today phenolics represent one of the many different types of com mercially available plastics (thermoset and thermoplastic). Phenolics are distinguished by a broad array of application areas that utilize phenolics as compared to other thermoset or thermoplastic resins. Thermoplastic resins transformed into molded products, films or synthetic fibers (polypropylene as an example) are rapidly recognized as "plastics" whereas the phenolic resin is a component in a material system and the identity of the phenolic resin within the system is not easily identified as "plastic". These systems consist of fiber reinforced composites, honeycomb paneling, electrical Iaminates, acid resistant coatings, wood panels, glass fiber or rock wool insulation. Phenolic resin identity is hidden and has little consumer recognition or identity.
 

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Contents

Raw Materials
3
111 Physical Properties of Phenol
4
113 Phenol Production Processes
5
1132 Toluene Oxidation Process
8
1133 Nitrous Oxide Oxidation of Benzene
9
1141 Methylphenols
10
1142 Higher Alkylphenols
11
775 Phenols from Coal and Mineral Oil
12
61563 Pultrusion
275
61564 Sheet Molding Compound
279
61565 Resin Transfer Molding
280
61566 Hand Lay Up
281
616 Miscellaneous
282
6162 Lampbase Cements Socket Putties
285
6163 Various Applications Brush Cements Casting Resins and Concrete Flow Promoters
287
6164 Phenolic Resin Fibers
288

117 BisphenolA
13
12 Aldehydes
14
722 Production and Economics of Formaldehyde
16
723 Paraformaldehyde
20
725 Hexamethylenetetramine
21
References
22
Phenolic Resins Chemistry Reactions Mechanism
24
221 Resole
25
2212 Oligomerization
27
222 Novolak
36
2222 Oligomerization
39
22222 High Ortho
46
22223 Modified Novolaks
48
23 Reactions
51
2312 Allyl Benzyl Group
55
2313 Cyanate Ester
56
232 Ring Formation with Phenolic
57
233 Alkylation
60
235 Natural Products
61
2411 Resole
62
24772 NMR Analyses
64
2412 Novolak
66
2413 NonHexa Cure
72
2414 Level of Cure
74
242 ToughnessAlloysIPN
75
243 Hazardous Occurrences
77
25 SummaryTrends
78
References
79
Production of Phenolic Resins
83
31 Production of Novolak
87
32 Production of Resole
89
References
90
Structure Methods of Analysis
91
4211 Chromatography
92
423 Compositional Structure
96
43 Solution Properties
97
433 Amine Catalyzed Resoles
98
434 All ortho Novolaks
101
443 Trioxyethylene Ether Appendage
102
45 Mechanical Properties
103
46 Fire Properties
104
47 SummaryTrends
105
References
106
Applications of Phenolic Resins
107
Thermosets Overview Definitions and Comparisons
109
References
120
Economic Significance Survey of Applications and Six Bonding Functions
122
61 Permanent Bonding
126
677 Wood Composites
127
6112 Wood StructureSurface
128
6113 Wood Sources
129
6114 Wood Composite Materials
130
67743 Engineered Lumber Products
143
6115 New Process and Equipment Developments in Panel Manufacture
145
61152 Wider Presses
146
61162 Lignin
147
61163 Tannin
148
6117 NonWood Materials
149
67782 Resordnol Adhesive
150
61183 New Areas
151
6119 SummaryFuture Directions
152
612 Insulation
153
61212 Types of Inorganic Fibers
154
61213 Resins for Inorganic Fibers
156
61274 Resin Formulation
157
6122 Phenolic Foam
158
61222 Resins
159
61223 Catalysts
160
61225 Surfactants
161
61226 Wetting Agents
162
612210 Foaming Equipment
165
612211 Properties of Various Phenolic Foam Products
166
612213 Aerogels
168
612214 SummaryTrends
169
Phenolic ResinBonded Textile Felts DIN 61210
170
61233 Composition of Textile Felts
171
61234 Types of Resins for Textile Felts
172
61235 Manufacturing Processes
176
61236 Properties and Applications
179
61237 Property and Quality Testing
180
61238 Recycling
184
613 Phenolic Molding Compounds
187
6132 Composition of Phenolic Molding Compound Resins Fillers and Reinforcing Agents
188
6133 Phenolic Molding Compound Standardization Current Status
194
6134 Production of Molding Compounds
197
6135 Processing of Molding Compounds
199
6136 Test Methods Application of ISO Standards
203
61361 Bulk Density ISO 60
205
61365 Charpy Impact Resistance ISO 179leU and Charpy Notched Impact Strength ISO 179leA
206
61368 Flammability Test UL 94
207
613612 Specific Volume Resistance IEC 60093
208
613615 Tracking Resistance CTI and PTI Comparative Tracking Index IEC 60112
209
6138 Application of Phenolic Molding Compounds
212
6139 Standardized and NonStandardized Molding Compounds as Examples for Applications
220
61310 Properties of Phenolic Molding Compounds Compared to Those of Other Materials
224
61311 Phenolic Novolaks and Epoxidized Phenolic Novolaks for Production of Epoxy Molding Compounds
230
674 Impregnation of Paper and Fabric Overview
231
6141 Molded Laminates Introduction
232
6142 Molded Laminates Survey of Technologies and Diversification
234
6143 Economic Considerations and Background Electrical Laminates and Printed Circuit Boards
237
6144 Standardization of Molded Laminates
244
6145 Raw Materials and Impregnation
248
6146 Fabric Laminates
250
6147 Applications of Paper and FabricBased Laminates
251
6149 Miscellaneous Impregnation Applications
254
615 High Performance and Advanced Composites
259
6152 Composite Market Segments
260
6153 Fiber Reinforced Plastics
263
6155 Fiber Developments
264
61561 Impregnation
265
61562 Filament Winding
272
62 Temporary Bonding
291
621 Foundry
292
6212 Hot Curing Processes
300
62131 Sand Conditioning
301
6214 The Hot Box Process
302
6215 The Warm Box Process
304
6216 Cold Curing with Direct Addition of a Curing Agent No Bake Process
305
62162 No Bake Curing with Added Esters
307
6217 Gas Curing Processes Using Phenolic Resin Binders
308
62171 The Polyurethane Cold Box Process
309
62172 The Methyl Formate Process
311
62173 The C02Resole Process
312
62175 Other Gassing Processes
313
622 Abrasives
314
6222 Economical Significance
315
6223 Grinding Wheels Classification Definitions
317
6224 Grinding Wheel Design Bonded Abrasives Composition and Stresses
319
6225 Liquid and Powdered Binders Phenolic Resins
323
6226 Cold Pressed Cutting and Roughing Wheels
328
6227 Production and Use of Glass Fabric Inserts
333
6228 Binders for High Wet Strength Grinding Wheels and Segments
336
6229 Hot Pressed Highly Compacted Grinding Wheels HP Wheels
337
62210 Diamond Wheels
339
62211 Phenolic Resins as Binders for Coated Abrasives
340
623 Friction Linings
353
6232 Demands on Friction Linings
355
6233 Composition of Friction Linings
358
6234 Phenolic Resins and Properties of Friction Linings
361
6235 Manufacture of Friction Linings
365
62352 Process 2 Wet Mixes for the Calender and Extrusion Processes
367
624 Auxiliaries for Petroleum and Natural Gas Production Proppant Sands and Tensides
370
63 Complementary Bonding
373
631 Phenolic Resins for Coatings and Surface Protection
374
6312 Phenolic Resins as Binders in Coatings Types of Resins and Modifications
375
6313 Phenolic Resin Coatings Composition
377
6315 Anticorrosion Primers
380
6316 Electrically Insulating Coatings
383
6317 Miscellaneous Coatings Applications Printing Inks Alkyd Coatings Photosensitive Coatings Powder Coatings
384
6318 PhotoresistImaging
385
63182 Photoresist
386
63183 SummaryTrends
397
632 Phenolic Resins as Additives in the Rubber Industry
398
6321 Vulcanization Resins
399
Resins Used to Increase the Tack of Rubber Mixes
401
Phenolic Resins Used for Reinforcement of Rubber Mixes
403
633 Binders for the Adhesives Industry
405
6331 Polychloroprene Based Adhesives
406
6332 Nitrile Rubber Adhesives
408
6333 PolyurethaneBased Contact Adhesives
409
6334 RubberMetal Bonding
410
6335 Friction Lining Adhesives
412
Other Applications of Phenolic Resins in Adhesives Formulations and Sealants
414
63364 Hot Melts
415
64 Intermediate and CarbonForming Bonding
416
641 Pyrolysis of Phenolics
417
642 Phenolic Resins as Binders for Refractories
425
6422 Economic Importance and Applications
427
6423 Environmental Impact in Use of Phenolic Resins
430
6424 Shaped Products
432
6425 Manufacture of Bricks
434
6426 Isostatically Pressed Products for Continuous Casting
438
6427 Slide Gates Graphite Crucibles Insulating Plates
441
6428 Unshaped Refractory Mixes
442
643 Carbon and Graphite Materials
444
6432 Phenolic Resins as Binders for Carbon and Graphite Engineering Materials Including CFC
446
6433 Phenolic Resins as Impregnating Agents for Porous Carbon or Graphite Articles
450
644 Glassy Carbon Polymeric Carbon
452
65 The Chemically Reactive Bonding Function
455
652 Alkylphenol Resins as Dye Developers for Carbonless Copy Paper
456
6521 Thermography
459
653 AntioxidantsStabilizers
460
6533 Classification of AntioxidantsStabilizers
461
6535 Effect of AntioxidantsStabilizers
462
6536 Market Areas
463
65362 Petroleum Products
464
6537 New Developments
466
65373 Triazine
467
References
468
Chemical Physical and Application Technology Parameters of Phenolic Resins
488
72 Standard Chemical and Physical Tests
490
73 Description of Physical and Chemical Test Methods ISO 10082 and Their Significance 12
491
731 ISO 3146 Melting Range Melting Behavior
492
733 ISO 60 Bulk Density
494
734 ISO 2811 and ISO 3675 Determination of Density
495
736 ISO 8975 Determination ofpH
496
737 ISO 9944 Determination of Electrical Conductivity
497
Characteristics
498
7311 ISO 9777 Acid Reactivity of Liquid Phenolic Resins
500
7313 ISO 8974 Residual Phenol Gas Chromatographic Determination
501
7314 ISO 11402 Determination of Free Formaldehyde in Phenolic Resins and CoCondensates
502
7315 50 8988 Hexamethylene Tetramine HMTA Content
503
of Phenolic Resins
504
742 ThinLayer Chromatography CompanySpecific Method
505
75 Application Technology Testing
507
751 Refractories
509
753 Abrasives Grinding Wheels Abrasive Shapes and Coated Abrasives
510
756 Resins for the Coatings Industry
511
757 Resins for the Adhesives Area
512
References
513
Industrial Safety and Ecological Questions Raw Materials Recycling Environment
514
81 Texicological Properties Hazards Labeling 25
515
82 Workplace Exhaust Air LowMonomer Resins
516
83 Flue Gas Treatment
520
84 Analytical Determinations at the Workplace and in Flue Gas
522
841 Example of a Measurement Procedure
523
85 Waste Recycling
524
86 Renewable Raw Materials Furfuryl Alcohol Lignin Tannin
527
References
529
Conclusion Guidelines for Future Developments in Phenolic Resins and Related Technologies
532
Subject Index
535
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