## Philosophy of InformationInformation is a recognized fundamental notion across the sciences and humanities, which is crucial to understanding physical computation, communication, and human cognition. The Philosophy of Information brings together the most important perspectives on information. It includes major technical approaches, while also setting out the historical backgrounds of information as well as its contemporary role in many academic fields. Also, special unifying topics are high-lighted that play across many fields, while we also aim at identifying relevant themes for philosophical reflection. There is no established area yet of Philosophy of Information, and this Handbook can help shape one, making sure it is well grounded in scientific expertise. As a side benefit, a book like this can facilitate contacts and collaboration among diverse academic milieus sharing a common interest in information. • First overview of the formal and technical issues involved in the philosophy of information • Integrated presentation of major mathematical approaches to information, form computer science, information theory, and logic • Interdisciplinary themes across the traditional boundaries of natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. |

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### Contents

27 | |

Part C Three Major Foundational Approaches | 169 |

Part D Major Themes in Transforming and Using Information | 319 |

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### Common terms and phrases

Abramsky agents algorithmic Amina analysis approach Artificial Intelligence axioms Baltag Barwise basic belief revision Benthem binary bits Cambridge chapter classical cognitive common Computer Science concept conditional consider constraints context corresponding data set defined definition denotations discussion Ditmarsch domain Domain Theory Dynamic Logic encoded entropy epistemic logic equilibrium example expressions fact finite Floridi formal function game theory given Handbook inference information flow information theory input interaction interpretation intuitions knowledge Kolmogorov complexity learning linguistic mathematical meaning measurement Minimum Description Length modal logic Nash equilibrium natural language objects observations Ockham Ockham's razor operation optimal Philosophy of Information physical plausibility players principle probability distribution problem propositions quantum computation qubit question random relation representation Section semantics sense sentence sequence Shannon situation theory statistical strategy string structure theoretical thermodynamics tion true truth Turing machine University Press update utterance variables Vitányi