Phonology of English Copied-Words in Punjabi
The present study attempts to gauge the extent of lexical-copyrings from English into Punjabi, and the degree of phonetic and phonological assimilation of the copied items. It clarifies a number of terminological issues, including highlighting the fact that the traditional terms like loan-word, loan-transaltion, loan-blend and lexical-borrowing are out-and-out misnomers,a nd (as teh metaphore of copying is more appropriate thatn that of borrowing for representing these linguistic phenomena) they must be replced with the terms copied-word, copied-translation, copied-blend and lexical-copying repsectively.
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allophones allophonic variant alveolar nasal articulated by raising assimilation authenticated bilabial bilingual British bulletins Cardinal Vowel CCVC cluster is found cluster occurs complementary distribution consonant cluster copied by Punjabi copied-words in Punjabi counterpart data collected definitions dental diphthong EC WPs ECWP RP GPP educated Punjabis English and Punjabi English copied-words English words Examples fact followed glide GPP of ECWPs Indian instances labio-dental lexical copying lexical items list of ECWPs loan-word maintained in GPP medially and finally monolingual monophthongal nasal native non-native words occurring in ECWPs occurs initially orthographic Oxford English Dictionary palate palato-alveolar phoneme phoneme occurs phonetic symbol phonological phonological aspects place of articulation position see Fig present data present study principal RP Punjabi dictionaries Punjabi language Punjabi pronunciation Punjabi speakers Punjabi speech realized RP and GPP RP phoneme RP vowel second element Singh substituted suffixes syllable term tongue Word RP GPP word-final position Word-initial Word RP