Phosphate removal from wastewaters using lanthanum precipitation
U.S. Federal Water Quality Administration; for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1970 - Technology & Engineering - 45 pages
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1:1 lanthanum-to-phosphate 12 SOLUTION pH activated sludge adsorption Al(III aluminum salt Bausch and Lomb calcium cation Cation-to-Orthophosphate Molar Ratio concentration was less condensed phosphates data obtained Effectiveness of Lanthanum Equivalence Ratio Initial evaluated Federal Water Quality ferric salts filtration flocculated flocs heating at 104°C Initial Orthophosphate Concentration La(III lanthanide Lanthanum and Aluminum lanthanum precipitation lanthanum salts Lanthanum-to-Orthophosphate Molar Ratio lanthanum-to-phosphate ratio less than 0.01 low pH levels mg/i minimum residual phosphate Molar Ratio Initial observed obtained using aluminum ortho Orthophosphate with Lanthanum pH adjustment pH and conductivity pH range phate phos phosphate removal phosphorus polyphosphates precipitate formation precipitating phosphates Precipitation of Orthophosphate precipitation of phosphates pure solutions pyrophosphate Radiometer Ratio Initial Orthophosphate reactant reaction kinetics apparatus reaction rate Reaction Rate Studies removal of phosphate residual phosphate concentration sampling port secondary effluent sodium tripolyphosphate solubility solution mixture SOLUTION pH Figure stoichiometry sulfate tion turbidity Water Quality Administration weight loss x-ray diffraction