Photodynamic Therapy Mediated by Fullerenes and their Derivatives
The fullerene molecule with its unique structure of 60 carbon atoms arranged in a soccer ball structure is a molecule of great potential for a variety of applications and has drawn attention of lots of physicists, chemists and engineers. Recently, these nanostructures have also been studied for their biological activities with a view towards using them for biomedical applications. One of the possible therapies for which fullerenes may have a real medical application is the light based therapy called photodynamic therapy (PDT), which is a non-surgical, minimally invasive approach that has been used in the treatment of solid tumors and many non-malignant diseases.
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Photodynamic Therapy Mediated by Fullerenes and Their Derivatives
No preview available - 2012
60]fullerene absorption spectrum acid aeruginosa aggregates anion antibacterial antibiotic resistance antimicrobial activity antimicrobial PDT applications bacteria bacterial cell biological biomedical buckminsterfullerene C3 isomer cancer cells cationic cationic charges cationic fullerene cell wall cellular charge-separated chemical coli compounds concentration conjugate covalently cyclodextrin cytotoxicity demonstrated dicationic effect efficient electron FC4S Figure fullerene cage fullerene derivatives fullerenols functionalized fullerenes fungal glucose glycoconjugated fullerene Gram-negative Gram-negative bacteria Gram-positive groups highly host tissue hydrophilic hydrophobic illumination inactivation increase infections killing light irradiation mechanism membrane mice micelle microorganisms moiety molecular Molecular self-assembly monoadducts monocationic Nanomedicine nanoparticles nanosphere nanostructures Nanotechnology optical pathogenic PDT with fullerenes photochemistry photodynamic activity photodynamic therapy photophysical photosensitizing phototoxicity phthalocyanines porphyrin potential pristine C60 produce quantum yield quaternized radicals reactive oxygen species red wavelengths reported singlet oxygen solubility solvents structure studies synthesis target technologies treatment triplet tumor Type uptake virus visible light vitro water-soluble white light