Phylogenetic Methods and the Prehistory of Languages
Evolutionary ('phylogenetic') trees were first used to infer lost histories nearly two centuries ago by manuscript scholars reconstructing original texts. Today, computer methods are enabling phylogenetic trees to transform genetics, historical linguistics and even the archaeological study of artefact shapes and styles. But which phylogenetic methods are best suited to retracing the evolution of languages? And which types of language data are most informative about deep prehistory? In this book, leading specialists engage with these key questions. Essential reading for linguists, geneticists and archaeologists, these studies demonstrate how phylogenetic tools are illuminating previously intractable questions about language prehistory. This innovative volume arose from a conference of linguists, geneticists and archaeologists held at Cambridge in 2004.
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JOHANNA NICHOLS ARNE RÖHL
Malagasy Language as a Guide to Understanding Malagasy History
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Africa allow analysis Anatolia approach assume assumptions Bantu languages binary borrowing branch Chapter characters classification coded cognate common comparative comparison computational correspondences data set dating derived dialects discussion distribution divergence East edge effect English estimates et al evidence evolution evolutionary example Figure genetic Germanic given Gray Greek historical Historical Linguistics Holden homoplasy identify independent indicate Indo-European inference innovations islands known least length lexical likelihood linguistic McMahon meaning methods nodes observed occurred origin parameters particular phonological phylogenetic phylogenetic methods phylogeny possible present Press probability problem proposed Proto-Indo-European question range reconstruction relationships relatively Renfrew replacement represent root sample semantic shown similar sound split stand statistical suggest Swadesh tion tree University verbs West words zone