Physical mechanisms for biological effects of ultrasound
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VISCOUS STRESSES AND 0THER MECHANISMS
MINIMUM LEVELS FOR 0BSERVED BI0EFFECTS
absorption coefficient acoustic microstreaming acoustic streaming amplitude angular frequency applied bioeffects of ultrasound biological cells biological effects Biological Tissues boundary layer brain Bureau of Radiological cavitation activity Celsius centimeters curve damage diagnostic Dunn dyn/cm2 Dyson effects of ultrasound experiments figure 15 fluid free radicals gas bubbles gaseous bodies Gershoy given heat Hemolysis hydrodynamic Interaction of Ultrasound irradiation Lele liquid low intensity levels lowest intensity levels macromolecules mammalian tissues medium megahertz frequencies membranes microbubbles Nonionizing Radiations Np/cm Nyborg observed occur oscillation particles physical mechanisms plant tissues plots pressure amplitude produced pulsating pulses radiation forces radiation pressure Radiological Health radius rectified diffusion red cells Rooney Section shearing stresses solid sonic cavitation sound field Sp intensity sphere spherical SpTa intensity stable cavitation suspensions temperature elevation theory threshold value time-averaged ultrasonic Ultrasound and Biological University of Vermont velocity gradient vibrating viscosity W.L. Nyborg