## Physics Before and After EinsteinIt is now a century ago that one of the icons of modern physics published some of the most influential scientific papers of all times. With his work on relativity and quantum theory, Albert Einstein has altered the field of physics forever. It should not come as a surprise that looking back at Einstein's work, one needs to rethink the whole scope of physics, before and after his time. This books aims to provide a perspective on the history of modern physics, spanning from the late 19th century up to today. It is not an encyclopaedic work, but it presents the groundbreaking and sometimes provocative main contributions by Einstein as marking the line between 'old' and 'new' physics, and expands on some of the developments and open issues to which they gave rise. This presentation is not meant as a mere celebration of Einstein's work, but as a critical appraisal which provides accurate historical and conceptual information. The contributing authors all have a reputation for working on themes related to Einstein's work and its consequences.Therefore, the collection of papers gives a good representation of what happened in the 100 years after Einstein's landmark Annalen der Physik articles. All people interested in the field of physics, history of science and epistemology could benefit from this book. An effort has been made to make the book attractive not only to scientists, but also to people with a more basic knowledge of mathematics and physics. |

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### Contents

A Portrait | 1 |

The Dynamics of Maxwells Ether | 21 |

Mechanistic Science Thermodynamics and Industry at the End of the Nineteenth Centur y | 49 |

The Origins and Concepts of Special Relativity | 71 |

Gravitation as Geometry and the Machian Programme | 93 |

From the Static to the Expanding Universe | 129 |

Testing Relativity | 163 |

Einstein and Quantum Theory | 183 |

From Einstein to Bell and Beyond | 205 |

Special Relativity and the Development of HighEnergy Particle Physics | 233 |

Quantum Theory and Gravitation | 253 |

Theory and Experiments A Panoramic Introduction | 267 |

Standard Cosmology and Other Possible Universes | 285 |

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acceleration Albert Einstein Annalen der Physik astronomer atomic Big Bang Bohr Bohr’s Boltzmann Chap charge chronometric classical concept coordinate system cosmic cosmological constant cosmology CPEE curvature density derived distance dynamics Earth Eddington effect electric electrodynamics electromagnetic electromagnetic mass electron energy ether Euclidean existence experimental experiments fact field equations finite force formula Friedmann function fundamental galaxies geometry gravitational field gravitational redshift gravitational wave inertial interactions interpretation kinetic Lorentz Mach’s magnetic field mass mathematical matter Maxwell measurement metric Michelson–Morley experiment Minkowski molecules momentum motion moving Newton’s Newtonian objects observed paper particle phenomena Philosophical photon Phys physicists physics Planck’s plasma Poincaré possible postulate prediction principle of relativity problem programme published quantum mechanics quantum theory radiation reason redshift relativistic result scientific scientists Section Sitter solution space space–time special relativity statistical superluminal tensor theoretical theory of relativity thermodynamics tion vector velocity wrote York