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absorbed absorption alcohol amount appear assimilation atmosphere bark become Botanische calcic cambium carbonic acid cell-wall cells cellulose cent changes chemical chlorophyll chlorophyll granules color coloring-matter containing cork cortex cotyledons crystals cutinized cylinder Darwin dicotyledons dilute dissolved ducts elements elongated embryo endodermis epidermis evaporation examined experiments fertilized fibres fibro-vascular bundles flower germination given glass glycerin grains green growth hairs hydrochloric acid inches increase instance iodine layer leaf leaves light liquid mass matters membrane micella microscope minute moisture monocotyledons movement nearly nitric acid nitrogen observed organs ovule oxygen parenchyma petiole Pfeffer plants pollen pollen-grains pollen-tube portion potassic produced protein protoplasm radial radicle rays reagents roots Sachs seedlings seeds shown side soil soluble solution sometimes species specimen stareh stem stoma stomata structure substance sugar surface temperature thickness thin threads tion tissues tracheids transpiration tube vegetable wall wood wood-cells woody yellow young
Page 219 - Although chemically inert in the ordinary sense, colloids possess a compensating activity of their own, arising out of their physical properties. While the rigidity of the crystalline structure shuts out external impressions, the softness of the gelatinous colloid partakes of fluidity, and enables the colloid to become a medium for liquid diffusion, like water itself.
Page 412 - We believe that there is no structure in plants more wonderful, as far as its functions are concerned, than the tip of the radicle. If the tip be lightly pressed or burnt or cut, it transmits an influence to the upper adjoining part, causing it to bend away from the affected side ; and, what is more surprising, the tip can distinguish between a slightly harder and softer object, by which it is simultaneously pressed on opposite sides.
Page 297 - ... as an essential property of the gaseous condition of matter. According to the physical hypothesis now generally received, a gas is represented as consisting of solid and perfectly elastic spherical particles or atoms, which move in all directions, and are animated with different degrees of velocity in different gases.
Page 391 - ... case. . . . The growing part, therefore, does not act like a nail when hammered into a board, but more like a wedge of wood, which, whilst slowly driven into a crevice, continually expands at the same time by the absorption of water ; and a wedge thus acting will split even a mass of rock.
Page 320 - I thought it was possible that the same process might also restore the air that had been injured by the burning of candles. Accordingly, on the 17th of August, 1771. I put a sprig of mint into a quantity of air, in which a wax candle had burned out, and found that, on the 27th of the same month, another candle burned perfectly well in it. This experiment I repeated, without the least variation in the event, not less than eight or ten times in the remainder of the summer.
Page 342 - that Pinguicula vulgaris, with its small roots, is not only supported to a large extent by the extraordinary number of insects which it habitually captures, but likewise draws some nourishment from the pollen, leaves, and seeds of other plants, which often adhere to its leaves. It is therefore partly a vegetable as well as an animal feeder.
Page 413 - ... it. But as the growing stem lengthens and rises, the tendril might strike against it and be wound up around it. It never does. If we watch these slender Passion-flowers, which show the revolving so well in a sultry day, we may see, with wonder, that when a tendril, sweeping horizontally, comes round so that its base nears the parent stem rising above it, it stops short, rises stiffly upright, moves on in this position until it passes by the stem, then rapidly comes down again to the horizontal...
Page 420 - But the most striking resemblance is the localisation of their sensitiveness, and the transmission of an influence from the excited part to another which consequently moves. Yet plants do not of course possess nerves or a central nervous system ; and we may infer that with animals such structures serve only for the more perfect transmission of impressions, and for the more complete intercommunication of the several parts.
Page 219 - ... at last. Nor does the change of this colloid appear to stop at that point. For the mineral forms of silicic acid deposited from water, such as flint, are often found to have passed, during the geological ages of their existence, from the vitreous or colloidal into the crystalline condition. (H. Rose.) The colloidal is, in fact, a dynamical state of matter, the crystalloidal being the statical condition.
Page 402 - Ceropegia, at the distance at first of 15 and then of 21 inches from the centre of revolution, the straight shoot slowly and gradually slid up the stick, so as to become more and more highly inclined, but did not pass over the summit. Then, after an interval sufficient to have allowed of a semi-revolution, the shoot suddenly bounded from the stick and fell over to the opposite side or point of the compass, and reassumed its previous slight inclination.