Placement of Concrete in the Ocean
This report presents state-of-the-art and proposed methods of concrete placement in the ocean to depths of 20,000 feet. Current technology includes bucket, tremie pipe, pumping, preplaced aggregate and bagged concrete methods as well as oil field cementing techniques. Problem areas, limitations and deficiencies of the current technology are discussed. Five new concepts of ocean concrete placement are presented and evaluated, most of which are variations of the current tremie method or bucket placement. Recommendations are made for research on materials and their properties, test methods, control devices and guidance systems for placement. A comprehensive bibliography is included.
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Bucket Placement Method
Placement Through an Inclined Tremie Pipe
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API Cements ASTM Bagged Concrete Method balance point batch Bentonite capability Cements ond Cernents CHECK SHEET Closs Compressive Strength concrete mixture concrete placement concrete pumps construction barges cubic yards density Displaced fluid displacement diver working depth drill drill mud dump feet flow of concrete flow properties FLY ASH friction pressure grout Halliburton Heave compensators hoist hydrostatic pressure inner pipe laitance limited ment mixing equipment º º º sº ocean floor oil well cementing pipe handling placed concrete placement depths placement of concrete placement point placement rates placement techniques portland cement Poznnix Cements Preplaced Aggregate Method primary cementing pumpability Pumped Cement Slurry Pumped Tremie require research efforts Retards rheological properties sand sea water shallow depths shown in Figure slump ſº surface equipment temperature tremie concrete tremie method Tremie Placement TYPES OF CEMENTS underwater vertical pipe volumes of concrete wiping plug yd/hr