Plankton: A Guide to Their Ecology and Monitoring for Water Quality

Front Cover
Csiro Publishing, 2009 - Nature - 256 pages
1 Review
Plankton serves as a wonderful tool for measuring water quality. Many local councils and water quality managers collect phytoplankton and zooplankton in response to the increasing incidence of algal (phytoplankton) blooms in rivers and estuaries; however, a lack of consistency and scientific rigor in the methodologies used often results in unresolved outcomes. While some guidelines have been developed for the collection and monitoring of freshwater algae (Algal Watch), there are differences between the methods and protocols used to sample estuaries and freshwater systems as well as those used to sample zooplankton.

This practical book gives an introduction to the biology and ecology of plankton and its use as a tool for monitoring water quality. It explores the ecology of plankton, its associated environmental and water quality issues, and its importance as an environmental indicator. A chapter on best practice in sampling and monitoring details how to design, implement and conduct meaningful phytoplankton and zooplankton monitoring programs in marine and freshwater habitats. It gives overviews of the major freshwater and coastal phytoplankton and zooplankton groups and outlines their associated environmental issues and the management implications. A select number of real-life case studies demonstrate the use of plankton for identifying and monitoring water quality issues.

This useful resource: explains the role of plankton in aquatic ecosystems and its usefulness as a water quality indicator; updates and details best practice in methodology for plankton sampling and monitoring programs; demonstrates how to analyze and interpret the results of sampling programs in terms of management strategies; and brings together widely-scattered information on freshwater and coastal phytoplankton and zooplankton and provides a list of up-to-date references.

Of interest to environment managers; water authority ecologists/managers; scientists and others in government agencies charged with managing water quality in inland and coastal waterways; estuary and catchment management committees; coastal engineers and environmental consulting companies; aquaculturists; marine ecologists; professors and undergraduate students of invertebrate biology, environmental impact assessment and marine biology.
 

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Contents

The importance of plankton
1
11 What are plankton and why study them?
2
Box 11 Red tides formed by Noctiluca
3
12 Water quality nutrients and environmental impacts
4
Box 12 Eutrophication and the effects of excess nitrogen
5
Box 13 Climate change
6
13 Management plans and sampling for a purpose
7
14 Coastal zone management
10
Box 51 Cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic bacteria
117
Box 53 Heterocytes and akinetes
118
53 Chlorophyceae green algae
120
Box 54 Distinctive features of chlorophyceae green algae
121
54 Bacillariophyceae diatoms
122
Box 55 Distinctive features of diatoms
123
55 Pyrrhophyceae or Dinophyceae dinoflagellates
124
Box 57 Distinctive features of dinoflagellates
125

15 Outline of this book
12
16 References
13
Plankton processes and the environment
15
22 Plankton food webs
18
sinking buoyancy and vertical migration
21
24 Life cycles of zooplankton
23
Box 21 Plankton diversity
25
Box 22 Changing state of a freshwater lake
28
27 An example of a classic saltwedge estuary
34
Box 23 Sampling of a classical saltwedge estuary
35
28 References
36
29 Further reading
38
Planktonrelated environmental and waterquality issues
39
Box 31 Invasive species from ballast water
42
32 Geographically persistent agal blooms in an estuary
43
33 Monitoring phytoplankton over the long term
45
34 Processes underlying blooms of freshwater cyanobacteria bluegreen algae
47
Box 32 Effects of eutrophication
48
phosphorous
49
nitrogen
50
Box 35 Analysis of cyanobacterial toxins
53
35 Phytoplankton monitoring in New Zealand for toxic shellfish poisoning
54
Box 36 Depletion of phytoplankton around New Zealand mussel farms
55
36 Freshwater zooplankton as integrators and indicators of water quality
57
37 Grazing and assimilation of phytoplankton blooms
61
38 Impact of reduced freshwater inflow on the plankton of southern African estuaries
65
Box 37 How sampling was conducted in the Kasouga Estuary
66
39 References
69
310 Further reading
72
Sampling methods for plankton
73
Box 41 The scientific method
74
42 Dealing with environmental variability
75
Box 42 Variance patchiness and statistical power
77
where and when to sample
79
where and when to sample
80
44 Measurement of water quality
81
Box 44 Electronic determination of salinity
82
45 Sampling methods for phytoplankton
85
46 Analysis of phytoplankton samples
87
Box 45 Extraction and quantification of chlorophyll
88
47 Sampling methods for zooplankton
91
Box 46 Manufacture of a simple ring net
96
Box 47 Safety note
98
48 Preparation and quantifying zooplankton subsampling Strays plankton wheels
99
Box 48 Fabrication of tungsten wire probes
106
Box 49 Occupational health and safety
107
examples of size structure
108
analysis quality control and presentation
110
Box 410 Calculating copepods per cubic metre
111
Box 411 Safety and care
112
411 References
113
412 Further reading
114
Freshwater phytoplankton diversity and biology
115
52 Cyanobacteria bluegreen algae
116
56 Other algae
126
Box 58 Distinctive features of euglenoids
127
Box 59 Distinctive features of cryptomonads
128
57 Conclusions
137
59 Further reading
139
Coastal and marine phytoplankton diversity and ecology
141
62 Diatoms Division Bacillariophyceae
145
Box 61 Benthic microalgae
146
Anaulus australis
147
Box 63 Species in the Pseudonitzschia genus
148
Box 64 Dinophysis acuminata
150
Box 65 Trichodesmium erythraeum
152
Box 66 Toxic raphidophyte blooms
153
Box 68 A coccolithophorid bloom in NSW
154
66 References
155
Freshwater zooplankton diversity and biology
157
72 Larvel fish
158
73 Copepods
162
74 Cladocerans
165
75 Rotifers
169
76 Protozoans
172
78 Conclusions
174
79 References
176
710 Further reading
179
Coastal and marine zooplankton diversity and biology
181
82 Copepods and other small and abundant animals
190
Box 81 Three key steps to identifying copepods
192
Box 82 The ecology and aquaculture of a dominant estuarine copepod
193
larger eyes and limbs
194
84 Other large zooplankton
197
Box 83 Ctenophore blooms
199
Box 84 Salps larvaceans and climate change
200
worms and snails
201
86 Small and irregular zooplankton 02 mm
203
87 Jellyfish and their relatives
205
Box 85 Jellyfish fisheries
208
Box 87 Jellyfish symbioses
209
Box 88 The bluebottle Physalia and its relatives
211
a note on safety
212
Box 810 Larval fish condition and deformities
213
Box 811 Development stages of larval fish
216
89 References
218
810 Further reading
221
Models and management
223
92 Examples of trophic models
227
93 Managing phytoplankton blooms in a reservoir by coupled models
230
Box 91 Ben Chifley catchment and Ben Chifley reservoir
232
94 Coastal Lake Assessment and Management CLAM tool
234
95 General comments regarding hydrodynamic and ecological modelling
240
96 References
241
97 Further reading
242
Glossary of terms
245
Index
249
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Iain M. Suthers

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