Plant Biomechanics: An Engineering Approach to Plant Form and Function
In this first comprehensive treatment of plant biomechanics, Karl J. Niklas analyzes plant form and provides a far deeper understanding of how form is a response to basic physical laws. He examines the ways in which these laws constrain the organic expression of form, size, and growth in a variety of plant structures, and in plants as whole organisms, and he draws on the fossil record as well as on studies of extant species to present a genuinely evolutionary view of the response of plants to abiotic as well as biotic constraints. Well aware that some readers will need an introduction to basic biomechanics or to basic botany, Niklas provides both, as well as an extensive glossary, and he has included a number of original drawings and photographs to illustrate major structures and concepts.
This volume emphasizes not only methods of biomechanical analysis but also the ways in which it allows one to ask, and answer, a host of interesting questions. As Niklas points out in the first chapter, "From the archaic algae to the most derived multicellular terrestrial plants, from the spectral properties of light-harvesting pigments in chloroplasts to the stacking of leaves in the canopies of trees, the behavior of plants is in large part responsive to and intimately connected with the physical environment. In addition, plants tend to be exquisitely preserved in the fossil record, thereby giving us access to the past." Its biomechanical analyses of various types of plant cells, organs, and whole organisms, and its use of the earliest fossil records of plant life as well as sophisticated current studies of extant species, make this volume a unique and highly integrative contribution to studies of plant form, evolution, ecology, and systematics.
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Some Biological and Philosophical Preliminaries
The Mechanical Behavior of Materials
The Effect of Geometry on Mechanical Behavior
Plant Cell Walls
The Mechanical Behavior of Tissues
The Mechanical Attributes of Organs
The Plant Body
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airflow angle axis beam biological biomechanics branches buckling calculated cantilever cell walls cellular solids cellulose collenchyma column components compressive stresses cross section cylindrical decreases deflection deformations density design factor diameter dicot dynamic loadings elastic modulus elongation epidermis equals equation evolution external fibers flexural stiffness flow fluid force formula function geometry gradient growth hydrostatic increases internode land plants leaf leaves length longitudinal magnitude material properties maximum measured mechanical behavior megasporangium meristem microfibrils moment of area morphology ovulate parenchyma petioles phloem plane plant body plant organs plant tissues plastic Poisson's ratio pollen grains primary produced propagules protoplast provides radius relatively resist result root secondary xylem seed shear modulus shear stress shoot soil solution species sporophyte stems strain energy stress-strain diagram structure tapered tensile stresses tension tion torsional tracheids transverse tree trunk turgor pressure typically vascular plants velocity vertical viscoelastic volume fraction wall layers water potential weight wind wood