Poland, policies for growth with equity
The dissolution of the Soviet Union and the breakdown of all previously established production and trading practices has forced Ukraine to confront the demands imposed by a market-based economy. The food and agriculture sector is still in the early stages of the transition toward private ownership and market- based decisionmaking. The adjustment is difficult because of the country's long history of distorted prices, government intervention, and monopolistic marketing and because of the built-in inefficiencies of the collective and state farm systems. This report describes the current status of the food and agriculture system and the continuing process of transformation. It also provides an agenda and recommendations for maintaining the reform process. The main chapters highlight the development of a market framework and competitive strategies, land reform and privatization, and ways of improving farm production and efficiency. Also available in Ukrainian: (ISBN 0-8213-3475-1) Stock No. 13475.
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Building on the Strengths of the Recovery
Public Sector Reform Reducing the Size of the State
Stimulating the Supply Response
accounts adjustment agencies agricultural allocations allocative efficiency assets audit average benefits Billion Zloty budget budgetary capital commercial banks contributions costs debt decentralization deficit district heat economic efficiency energy prices enterprises equity European European Union expenditures Exports fiscal foreign framework funds gmina gminy Gross Domestic Product growth health sector households implementation important improve increase industrial inflation infrastructure initial public offerings interest rates investors levels loans macroeconomic Ministry of Privatization needed OECD options payments pension system percent of GDP PKO BP Poland Polish popiwek portfolio poverty powiat private banks private sector problems proposal public investment public sector reduced reform regional regulatory restructuring revenues risk savings social assistance social insurance Source spending strategy subsidies substantial Table targeted tariff tax administration taxpayers tier Total trade transfers Treasury Treasury-owned trillion unemployment value-added tax voivod wage World Bank Zloty