Policy Instruments for Achieving Environmentally Sustainable Transport
OECD Staff, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Staff, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Environmental Policy Committee. Working Party on Pollution Prevention and Control. Working Group on Transport
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2002 - Technology & Engineering - 171 pages
Conventional approaches to mitigating transport's environmental impacts have used observed and projected transport trends and sought to assess the environmental impacts of these trends. Whilst this approach is acknowledged as useful, it is not perceived as capable of leading to meeting long-term environmental objectives. Accordingly the project on Environmentally Sustainable Transport (EST) was initiated in late 1994. The EST is a backcasting exercise. One or more desirable futures are defined and policy development is guided by an assessment of what is required to achieve them. The project comprised four phases: Phase 1 involved a review of relevant activities of member countries and defining the development of the project; Phase 2 focused on the gap between current and projected trends; Phase 3 has been the backcasting exercise; Phase 4, which has overlapped with Phase 3, refined the criteria for achieving ESTG and development policy guidelines. This report represents the results of Phase 3 of the project.
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Instruments for achieving EST
Economic and social implications of EST
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achieving air pollution Alpine analysis approach areas assessment Austria Aviation backcasting barriers to attainment BAU scenario behaviour biofuels calming in towns cent changes in transport climate change CO2 emissions concerning consumption criteria energy environment EST3 estimated external costs factors freight transport fuel tax global Greater Oslo Greater Oslo region Guidelines heavy-duty vehicles Impact Path improve increase instru instrument package instruments proposed investment involving Kyoto Protocol land Member country teams ment methods mobility mode shifts motorised transport movement Netherlands noise non-motorised OECD organisation overall parking passenger transport Phase pilot actions potential implementation project teams Promotion proposed instruments public transport Quebec-Windsor corridor Rail freight Railways reduce regional regulations regulatory Road pricing social implications standards strategies subsidy sustainable transport Table targets term tion tradeable permits Traffic calming transport activity trends type of effect urban VOCs