Polite landscapes: gardens and society in eighteenth-century England
Parks and gardens of eighteenth-century England are usually understood as the creations of individual geniuses like William kent, Capability Brown, and Humphry Repton. But this wasn't necessarily a view shared by their contemporaries. Landowners typically had strong ideas about how their property should look and how it should function. And, according to Tom Williamson, other powerful influences were at work as well. In Polite Landscapes Williamson examines the wider social, economic, and political implications of these extraordinary creations. He reveals how the aristocracy and gentry -- who paid for and lived in these remarkable private landscapes -- participated in their creation for a variety of complex interests and needs. More than simply a grand setting for a country house, the park and garden had to accommodate farming and forestry enterprises and serve as a proper setting for hunting, riding and other recreational activities. They also needed to conform to the aesthetic principles of the landowner's favorite philosophers and landscape gardeners. Emphasizing the practical relationship between landowners (who were demanding clients) and artists (who were also businessmen), Williamson shows how changing fashions of landscape design expressed the broader currents of social and economic development in eighteenth-century England. He examines a wide range of properties -- including homes of gentry and middle class as well as those of the nobility -- and assesses the impact of the English landscape garden on the rest of the world. Illustrated with dozens of contemporary maps, plans, and paintings, Polite Landscapes is a book for anyone with a serious interest in gardens, parks, great houses, and the English landscape.
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Lypiatt Park Gloucestershire 1712
Copped Hall Essex c 1779
soil marks of a lost garden
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aesthetic agricultural architecture areas avenues began belts Brown Capability Brown changes Charles Bridgeman classical clumps complex conifers contemporary continued coppice country house countryside created decades deer parks early eighteenth century economic elite enclosed enclosure England estate land extent farms fashion flowers forestry formal gardens garden buildings garden design Garden History Gardening London gentry geometric garden Hall hedges Hertfordshire Holkham Humphry Repton Ibid ideas important improvement increasingly irregular Italian Journal of Garden kind Knight land landowners landscape design Landscape Gardening landscape park large numbers late geometric lawns layout less main facade mansion nature op.cit ornamental owner Palladian parkland parks and gardens parterres particular paths pheasants picturesque plantations planting pleasure grounds polite society Red Book rural second half serpentine seventeenth century social status Stephen Switzer Stourhead structure style surrounding temples topiary traditional trees turf views visitors vistas walls Walpole Whig wilderness William Kent woodland woods