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Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain: With Physical Sections ..., Հատոր 4
Alexander von Humboldt
Ամբողջությամբ դիտվող - 1822
abundance according already amalgamation America amounted annually appears beds called carried century Cerro coast cochineal Colonies commerce considerable considered contains copper cultivation depth direction discovered district east eight employed estimated Europe exportation extent extracted feet five formation four francs frequently furnished gold and silver greatest Guanaxuato half hand hundred imported increase Indians inhabitants intendancy iron Islands land less livres manufacture marcs of silver mass means mercury metals metres Mexican Mexico millions of piastres minerals mines mixed month mountains muriate native nature nearly never observed operations period Peru Potosi pounds precious present produce province quantity quintals Real remains rich rock Santa slate sometimes South Spain Spanish species Sterling sugar supplied thousand town Trans Valenciana veins wealth whole wrought yield Zacatecas
Էջ 239 - They walk in a zigzag direction, because they have found from long experience (as they affirm) that their respiration is less impeded, when they traverse obliquely the current of air which enters the pits from without.
Էջ 456 - Phenicians and Greeks, have thrown insurmountable obstacles in the way of such settlements as might secure to these distant possessions^ a great degree of prosperity, and an existence independent of the mother country. Such principles as. prescribe the rooting up the vine and the olive, are not calculated to favour manufactures. A colony has for ages, been only considered as useful to the parent state, in so far as it supplied a great number of raw materials, and consumed a number of the commodities...
Էջ 50 - Hatos de ganado, from thirty to forty thousand head of horses and oxen. The mules would be still more numerous, if so many of them did not perish on the highways from the excessive fatigues of journeys of several months.
Էջ 149 - SPAIN. 149 veins, (kilos del desposorio) of exceeding richness. The argillaceous slime with which these small veins are filled, contains so great a quantity of gold disseminated in impalpable parcels, that the miners are compelled when they leave the mine nearly in a state of nakedness, to bathe themselves in large vessels, to prevent any of the auriferous clay from being carried off by them on their 'bodies. The silver mineral of Villalpando generally contains only two ounces of gold per load, (cargo.
Էջ 111 - I was presented with gold plate and jewels of such precious workmanship, that unwilling to allow them to be melted, I set apart more than a hundred thousand ducats worth of them to be presented to your Imperial Highness. These objects were of the greatest beauty, and I doubt if any other prince on earth ever possessed anything similar to them.
Էջ 112 - Although he gave me a great share of them for your Highness, I gave orders to the natives to execute several other works in gold, after my designs, which I furnished them with, such as images of saints, crucifixes, medals, and necklaces. As the fifth or eighth on the silver paid to your Highness amounted to more than a hundred marcs, I gave orders to the native goldsmiths to convert them into plate of various sizes, spoons, cups, and other vessels for drinking. All these works were imitated with...
Էջ 115 - Peruvian chisel, in which M. Vauquelin found 0.94 of copper, and 0.06 of tin. This mixture was so well forged, that by the closeness of the particles, its specific weight was 8.815, while, according to the experiments of M.
Էջ 463 - On visiting these workshops, a traveller is disagreeably struck, not only with the great imperfection of the technical process in the preparation for dyeing, but in a particular manner also with the unhealthiness of, the situation, and the bad treatment to which the workmen are exposed. Free men, Indians, and people of colour, are confounded with the criminals * 4122,448 Sterling.
Էջ 246 - The labour of a miner is entirely free throughout the whole kingdom of New Spain ; and no Indian or Mestizoe can be forced to dedicate themselves to the working of mines. It is absolutely false, though the assertion has been repeated in works of the greatest estimation, that the court of Madrid sends out galley slaves to America, to work in the gold and silver mines.