Political Parties

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Simon and Schuster, 1968 - Political Science - 379 pages
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In this book Michels analyzes the tendencies that oppose the realization of democracy, and claims that these tendencies can be classified in three ways: dependence upon the nature of the individual; dependence upon the nature of the political structure; and dependence upon the nature of organization. This edition, described by Morris Janowitz as a "classic of modern social science" and by Melvin Tumin as "the beginning of a tradition", offers a landmark study in political science. Following its original publication in 1910, the study and analysis of political parties was established as a new branch of science. Political Parties continues to be a foundation work in the literature and is a necessary addition to the libraries of contemporary political scientists, sociologists, and historians. Copyright Libri GmbH. All rights reserved.

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Democratic Aristocracy and Aristocratic Democracy
A Technical and Administrative Causes of Leadership
The Modern Democratic Party as a Fighting Party
The Political Gratitude of the Masses
Accessory Peculiarities of the Masses
The Stability of Leadership
The Financial Power of the Leaders and of the Party
The Leaders and the Press
Analysis of the Bourgeois Elements in Socialist
Social Changes Resulting from Organization
The Need for the Differentiation of the Working
Labor Leaders of Proletarian Origin
Intellectuals and the Need for Them in the Working
Part FiveAttempts to Restrict the Influence of the Leaders
The Postulate of Renunciation
Anarchism as Prophylactic

The Struggle Between the Leaders and the Masses
Bureaucracy Centralizing and Decentralizing Tend
Part ThreeThe Exercise of Power and Its Psychological
Bonapartist Ideology
Identification of the Party with the Leader Le Parti
Introductory The Class Struggle and Its Disintegrat
The Oligarchical Tendencies
Democracy and the Iron Law of Oligarchy
PartyLife in WarTime
Final Considerations
Index of Names

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About the author (1968)

Robert Michels was a German sociologist who spent the last 10 years of his life in Italy. In the English-speaking world, he is most famous for his book "Political Parties" (1911), in which he formulated the problem of the oligarchic tendencies of organizations. "He who says organization," he asserted, "says oligarchy." But political parties, he believed, are less oligarchic than single-purpose organizations concerned with specific reforms or with technical problems. An important study of the International Typographical Union, "Union Democracy" by Seymour M. Lipset, Martin A. Trow, and James S. Coleman (1956), has been said by some scholars to challenge many of Michels's findings about organizations. Rather, by pointing out the essential characteristics of a democratic trade union, this book confirms Michels's thesis. Michels also wrote about democracy, socialism, revolution, class conflict, trade unionism, mass society, nationalism, imperialism, and intellectuals, and he made intensive studies of the politics of the working class.

Seymour Martin Lipset: March 18, 1922 - December 31, 2006 American political theorist and sociologist, Seymour Martin Lipset, was born in New York City on March 18, 1922, and educated at City College of New York and Columbia University. Lipset taught at a number of universities, including the University of Toronto, Columbia University, the University of California at Berkeley, Harvard University, and Stanford University. A senior fellow at the Hoover Institution, he was also a member of the International Society of Political Psychology, the American Political Science Association, and the American Academy of Science. Among Lipset's many works are "Political Man: The Social Bases of Politics" (1960), "Class, Status, and Power" (1953), and "Revolution and Counterrevolution" (1968). He also contributed articles to a number of magazines, including The New Republic, Encounter, and Commentary. Lipset has received a number of awards for his work, including the MacIver Award in 1962, the Gunnar Myrdal Prize in 1970, and the Townsend Harris Medal in 1971. Lipset died on December 31, 2006, as a result of complications following a stroke. He was 84.

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