Pollution Limits and Polluters’ Efforts to Comply: The Role of Government Monitoring and Enforcement
Stanford University Press, Apr 14, 2011 - Business & Economics - 336 pages
This book integrates the fields of economics and law to empirically examine compliance with regulatory obligations under the Clean Water Act (CWA). It examines four dimensions of federal water pollution control policy in the United States: limits imposed on industrial facilities' pollution discharges; facilities' efforts to comply with pollution limits, identified as "environmental behavior"; facilities' success at controlling their discharges to comply with pollution limits, identified as "environmental performance"; and regulators' efforts to induce compliance via inspections and enforcement actions, identified as "government interventions." The authors gather and analyze data on environmental performance and government interventions from Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) databases, and data on environmental behavior gathered from their own survey of all 1,612 chemical manufacturing facilities permitted to discharge wastewater in 2002. By analyzing links between critical elements in the puzzle of enforcement of and compliance with environmental protection laws, the text speaks to several important, policy-relevant research questions: Do government interventions help induce better environmental behavior and/or better environmental performance? Do tighter pollution limits improve environmental behavior and/or performance? And, does better environmental behavior lead to better environmental performance?
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Sample of Regulated Facilities
3 Summary of Research Questions and Review of Previous Studies
4 Discharge Limits Imposed on Discharging Facilities
Facilities Efforts to Comply with Discharge Limits
Facilities Discharges and Compliance with Discharge Limits
7 Regulatory Efforts to Induce Compliance with Discharge Limits
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absolute discharges analysis assess audit behavioral forms Behavioral Measure below-median BOD limits BOD treatment chemical facilities chemical manufacturing Clean Water Act compliance comply concentration limits concentration-equivalent limits correlation discharge limits discharge ratio effect of TSS effluent limitation enforcement actions environmental behavior environmental employees EPA regional explore the effect external consultants facilities facing looser facilities facing tighter facility employees facility’s facing tighter limits federal formal nonsanctions government interventions greater deterrence imposed influence inspec inspection–related inspections limit Above median limit levels median Above median median limit Median-Aggregated noncompliance NPDES null hypothesis number of environmental organic chemical overall employees p-value percent point sources pollutants production-adjusted quantity limits proves statistically insignificant regression analysis relative to overall rence sample period SEPs shown in Table specific deterrence subsamples based survey Test Statistic tion total suspended solids Training Days treatment technologies TSS and BOD TSS limits TSS treatment U.S. Code wastewater discharges wastewater employees