Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces: Characterization, Modification and Applications

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Manfred Stamm
Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 26, 2008 - Technology & Engineering - 324 pages
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Surfaces and interfaces of polymers play an important role in most of the application areas of polymers, e.g. moulds, foils, thin films, coatings, adhesive joints, blends, composites, biomaterials or applications in micro- and nanotechnology. Therefore it is very important to be able to characterize these surfaces and interfaces in detail. In Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces, experts provide concise explanations, with examples and illustrations, of the key techniques. In each case, after basic principles have been reviewed, applications of the experimental techniques are discussed and illustrated with specific examples. Scientists and engineers in research and development will benefit from an application-oriented book that helps them to find solutions to both fundamental and applied problems.

 

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Contents

110 Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry SIMS
12
112 Inverse Gas Chromatography IGC
14
References
15
Structure Determination in Thin Film Geometry Using Grazing Incidence SmallAngle Scattering
16
22 Real Space Analysis
19
23 Reciprocal Space AnalysisScattering
20
231 Conventional Diffuse Scattering
22
232 Grazing Incidence SmallAngle Scattering
23
24 Experimental SetUps for GISAS
26
241 GISAXS
27
242 GISANS
28
25 Selected Cuts from 2D Data
29
252 Detector and OffDetector Scans
30
26 Selected Examples
32
262 Dewetted Polymer Blend Films
34
263 Dewetted Diblock Copolymer Films
35
27 Summary
37
Acknowledgments
38
Vibrational Spectroscopic and Optical Methods
46
32 Vibrational Spectroscopic Methods
47
322 Transmission Infrared TRANSIR
50
323 Attenuated Total Reflexion Infrared ATRIR
51
324 Grazing Incidence Infrared GIR
57
325 Diffuse Reflexion Infrared FT DRIFT
58
326 Raman Spectroscopy
60
33 Optical Methods
61
332 Surface Plasmon Resonance SPR
64
34 Summary
68
XRay Photoelectron Spectroscopy
70
42 Instrumentation
72
43 Information Depth
73
44 Polymer and Other NonConducting Samples
74
45 WideScan SpectraQuantification and Interpretation
75
46 HighResolution Element SpectraPeak Deconvolution and Interpretation
79
47 LabellingThe Derivatization of Functional Groups for its Identification
81
48 AngleResolved XPS
83
49 Special XPS Techniques
84
491 KryoXPS
85
493 ImagingXPS
86
References
87
Monographs and Reviews
88
TimeofFlight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry
89
52 Instrumentation
92
53 Samples
94
55 Imaging TimeofFlight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy
98
References
100
Characterization of Polymer Surfaces by Wetting and Electrokinetic MeasurementsContact Angle Interfacial Tension Zeta Potential
102
62 Theoretical Background of Wetting and Electrokinetic Phenomena
105
622 Wettability of Solid Surfaces
112
623 Origin of Surface Charge Electrical Double Layer Zeta Potential
118
63 Experimental Techniques
123
Particle Electrophoresis ElectroOsmosis Streaming Potential Sedimentation Potential
133
References
135
Mechanical Properties of Polymers at Surfaces and Interfaces
138
72 Overview of Mechanical Bulk Behaviour
139
73 Fracture Mechanical Characterization of Polymers and Composites
143
732 Energy Release Rate
144
733 The Concept of Crack ResistanceRCurve
145
734 StressStrain Situation and Failure in Heterogeneous Systems
146
736 Some Remarks on Shear Tests
148
74 Characterization of Surface Forces and Adhesion
149
742 Blister Tests
150
743 Blade Cutting Test Hesiometer
151
744 The Adhesion Scratch Test Diamond Scratch Test Stylometer Nanoscratch Test
152
745 Nanoindentation Test
153
Surface Force ApparatusMASIF
155
747 Force Measurement by AFMSFM
157
748 Colloidal Probe Techniques with the SFM
158
References
159
Interfaces Between Incompatible Polymers
160
References
181
LiquidLiquid and LiquidVapor Interfaces in Polymeric Systems
182
92 Interfaces in Binary Polymer Blends
183
93 SelfConsistent Field SCF Theory
185
94 Excess Quantities
187
95 Interface Fluctuations
188
96 Kinetics of Phase Separation
189
97 LiquidVapor Interfaces
192
972 Wetting and Stability of Thin Films
196
973 Explicit Solvent
197
98 Outlook
198
Acknowledgements
199
Plasma Modification of Polymer Surfaces and Plasma Polymerization
202
1012 How to Apply Low Pressure Plasma
204
1013 Examples
206
102 Plasma Polymerization
210
1022 How to Apply Plasma Polymerization
211
1023 Example
212
References
213
Grafting on Solid Surfaces Grafting to and Grafting from Methods
214
112 Behavior of Polymer Brushes
216
1122 Bidisperse Polymer Brushes
218
1123 Mixed Polymer Brushes
219
1124 BlockCopolymer Brushes
223
113 Synthesis of Polymer Brushes
224
1132 Grafting to Method
226
1133 Grafting from Method
227
1134 Synthesis of Mixed Brushes
228
1135 Controlled Synthesis of Polymer Brushes by Living Free Radical Polymerization
229
References
230
Surface Modification by Adsorption of Polymers and Surfactants
234
122 Fundamentals
235
1221 The Role of the Solid Surface
239
1223 Influence of the Third Substance
240
1225 Adsorption of Polyelectrolytes and Polyampholytes
242
1226 Adsorption of Surfactants
243
123 Selected Methods for Investigation of Adsorption Processes
245
124 Applications
248
1241 Adsorption of Surfactants
249
1242 Adsorption of Polyelectrolytes
253
1243 Adsorption of Coupling Agents
254
References
256
Nanostructures in Thin Films from Nanostructured Polymeric Templates SelfAssembly
259
1321 SelfAssembly in Block Copolymers
261
1322 Supramolecular Assemblies Based on Block Copolymers
264
133 Ordering and Orientation in SMA
267
134 Nanoreactors for Nanoparticles
270
References
271
Influencing the Interface in Polymer Blends by Compatibilization with Block Copolymers
273
Thermodynamic Basics
277
General Options
280
1431 Introduction of Specific Interactions
281
1432 Reactions Between the Polymer Phases in the Blend
282
1433 Block Copolymers as Compatibilizers
285
Examples
286
1442 Compatibilization with Block Copolymers
291
1443 Conclusions
294
Interfacial Phenomena of Biomaterials
298
152 The Hierarchy of BioInterfacial Phenomena
300
1521 Surfaces of Biomaterials in PreApplication Settings
301
1522 Biopolymers at Interfaces
302
1523 Biomaterials in Contact with Cells and Tissues
304
153 Surface Modification of Polymeric Biomaterials
307
1532 Implementing Bioactive ElementsModulating Molecular Signals
309
1533 Supramolecular Biopolymer Assemblies Providing Morphogenetic Cues
312
154 Conclusion
314
Acknowledgements
315
Index
318
Copyright

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