Pontius Pilate in History and Interpretation
This study reconstructs the historical Pontius Pilate and looks at the way in which he is used as a literary character in the works of six first century authors: Philo, Josephus and the four evangelists. The first chapter provides an introduction to the history and formation of the imperial Roman province of Judaea. The following two chapters examine the references to Pilate in Philo and Josephus, looking at each author's biases before going on to assess the historicity of their accounts. The next four chapters look at the portrayal of Pilate in each gospel, asking how a first century reader would have interpreted his actions. Each chapter asks what this portrayal shows about the author's attitude towards the Roman state, and what kind of community found this useful. The conclusion distinguishes between the 'historical Pilate' and the different 'Pilate of interpretation' preserved in our first century literary sources.
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1 Pontius Pilate and the Roman province of Judaea
2 Pilate in Philo
3 Pilate in Josephus
4 Pilate in Marks gospel
5 Pilate in Matthews gospel
6 Pilate in LukeActs
7 Pilate in Johns gospel
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accusations Acts Agrippa Antiquities aqueduct Archelaus Augustus Barabbas Barrett Caesar Caesarea Caiaphas character characterization of Pilate charge chief priests Christ Christian coins conﬂict cruciﬁxion death described difﬁcult Dio Cassius E. P. Sanders Embassy Emperor evangelist example favour ﬁnal ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬁrst-century ﬁt ﬁve Flaccum Gaius Galileans God’s Hengel Herod Herodian high priest historical honour Ibid imperial incident inﬂuence innocence Jerusalem Jesus Jewish crowd Jewish Law Jewish leaders Jews Johannine John Josephus Judaea Judaism King kingship legate Lémonon Luke Luke-Acts Luke’s Mark Mark’s gospel Markan Matthew messianic mockery ofﬁce ofﬁcial pagan passion narrative Passover Philo Pilate’s Pilate’s actions Pilate’s governorship political Pontius Pilate prisoner province readers reference reﬂect release religious revolt Roman governor Roman prefect Roman trial Rome rulers Samaritans scene Schiirer scholars Sejanus shields shows signiﬁcant Smallwood speciﬁc standards Suetonius suggests Tacitus Temple themes theological Tiberius troops verb verse Vitellius whilst