Poverty and Low Income in the Nordic Countries
Björn Gustafsson, Peder J. Pedersen
Ashgate, 2000 - Social Science - 215 pages
It concludes that: transfer payments from the public sector are largely responsible for the fact that, from an international point of view, relatively few people suffer from poverty in Nordic countries, ie. the welfare state works. Poverty among the elderly has fallen drastically since the mid 1970s as pension systems introduced earlier had taken effect. Poverty is increasing among the young population, ie. the welfare state has not developed a system to provide for young people who do not have the skills to enter the labour market. For many, poverty is short term, but having been poor early on increases the risk of returning to poverty. So far the Nordic countries have been relatively homogeneous, but inequality is on the increase.
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Low Incomes in Denmark 19801995
Poverty in Iceland
Extent Level and Distribution of Low Income
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50 per cent absolute serie analysis annual income benefits cent of median changes coefficients cohabiting compared consumer price index decline decreased defined Denmark disposable income distribution of income economic poverty elderly entry rate Eurostat exit rate extent of poverty factor income family earnings females Figure Finnish Gustafsson head count ratio higher income after tax income distribution increase indices inequality labour force labour market participants level of living Logit estimations low income group low income line low income risk low income share lower median income microdata non-participants non-poor Nordic Council Nordic countries overall period poor poverty gap poverty measures poverty or low poverty population poverty rate poverty risk problems proportion reduced reference person Ritakallio sample shows single parents social assistance Statistics Norway Statistics Sweden surveys Sweden Swedish Table ten-year transfers trend unemployed unit of consumption University of Iceland Uusitalo welfare women young adults